An Evaluation of Teaching Methodology in Economics for Non-Business Students


THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
This paper describes the development and prospective applications of new strategies on effective and efficient teaching of Economics to non business students. This psychological construct is defined as the extent to which the teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance.
The researcher reviews some techniques that teachers might use to improve their classroom teaching. The techniques are drawn primarily from my research on university teaching and best practices adopted in most schools. Prior teaching experience has extended researcher understanding of this research to a relatively mature level. The proposal presented here is designed for use as a professional educator training and for possible use as a variable in economic education learning models that seek to explain the teaching process.

Understanding, then enhancing, the teaching process in economic education poses challenges similar to those in disciplines like mathematics or accounting that researcher believes that it requires abstract thinking and reflective learning. Characteristics of persons on both sides of the classroom, the means and modes of the teaching process and the influence of environmental factors combine to produce performance results. Should this new paper prove valuable in this study, perhaps by way of providing significant explanatory power in economic learning models, teacher-training interventions could gain a new meter to measure their impact. Teaching requirements imposed by the school show how it affects the students’ performance in teaching the non business students and could benefit them.

The Problem
Is the methodology effective in teaching Economics in drawing appreciation, interest and good performance among non business students in TIP? In the last 8 semesters 80 percent of non business students who are taking up Economics are performing poorly and therefore there is a need to evaluate the current teaching methodology, curriculum, course content and the faculty.

Rationale
The rationale for this research is for better appreciation and interest for Economics as an essential requirement of the study in Engineering course.

General Objective
To evaluate the teaching methodology in Economics for non-business students enrolled at the TIP engineering courses.
Specific Objectives

1.To describe the current situation of the teaching methodology used.

2.To analyze issues, gaps, problems of the current system

3.To analyze how it affects the students performance, review teaching styles,

facilities used, books used, qualification of teachers.

4.To identify the best practice in effective teaching in Economics subjects locally and internationally.

5.To develop a more effective methodology in the teaching of Economics for the students to appreciate.

Conceptual Framework
Diagram 1. Causes and Effects of Ineffective Teaching
The diagram above shows that the ineffective teaching is caused by inadequate instructional material, failure of proper orientation program on the kind of attitude the students should exercise towards the study of Economics, unqualified teachers for the lack of training and seminars, subject not appreciated for lack of creativity and motivations. The effects of these are the unfavorable performances of the students with regards to their initial knowledge in economics. These are insufficient knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles in economics. Second is an undeveloped skill of identifying the circular flow of economic activity. Third is inability to organize the resources well which also results to less productivity. Fourth is the inability to solve problems specifically determining the concepts of supply and demand.

Diagram 2. Causes and Effects of Effective Teaching
The paradigm above shows that the effective teaching is caused by adequate instructional material and teaching aides, proper orientation program on the kind of attitude the students should exemplify towards the study of economics, qualified teachers with adequate and useful training and seminars, subject is interesting and appreciated. The effects of these are the favorable performances of the students with regards to their initial knowledge in economics. These positive effects are sufficient knowledge and sound understanding of the concepts and principles in economics. Second is that the students manifest a developed skills equipped of identifying the basic circular flow of economic activity. Third is ability to organize the resources well which will bear more productive results. Fourth is the ability to solve problems specifically determining the concepts of supply and demand and what causes it to decrease and increase considering the non price factors affecting demand and supply.

Hypothesis
(Ho) – Whether the teaching Economics in the Engineering course improve the non business student’s appreciation of Economics or not it will substantially increase understanding and ability to solve Economic problems and issues.
(Ha) -An improved teaching methodology of Economics in the Engineering course increases non business student’s appreciation, understanding and the ability to solve economic problems and issues.

Definition of Terms
Course content- complete course outline or lessons coverage in Economics to be taken in the whole semester.
Methodology- method or way of teaching in the class to encourage active participation from the students.
Gaps- difference in student performance on teacher’s assessments between high and low performing students
Economics-subject enrolled by the students for learning how to organized their resources well into productive use to satisfy their basic needs and wants.
Best practice- teaching standard frequently used by most schools and universities here in the Philippines and abroad.
TIP- Technological Institute of the Philippines, an academic institution offering tertiary level of education in the field of accounting, management, education and engineering courses.
WLAP- Weekly Lesson Activity Plan used by TIP faculty for their lesson plan used to aid the faculty in teaching his students for the lessons he prepared for the whole week.
Non business majors- these are students enrolled in engineering courses other than accounting and management courses.
Performance towards Economics-It is a disposition of response favorably or unfavorably towards economics subject. In this study, the performance of the students toward Economics is measured which strategy they learned better.
Economic problems- this include issues on organizing, distribution, consumption and production of our basic resources.
Resources- these are economic resources which include land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship
Lecture- also known as traditional method of teaching which is a teacher-oriented and is characterized with less student participation.

Scope and Limitation
Scope and limitation of the study considers performance for non business major
taking up Economics for school year 2008-2009 because of limited time, funds and
resources. The researcher will cover 30% of the total population of Engineering students taking up Economics enrolled in top 5 engineering schools. These include TIP-Technological Institute of the Philippines, Letran, Mapua , Don Bosco and RTU-Rizal Technological University.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Description of Current Situation
The TIP is a private, non-sectarian college that specializes in Engineering and Architecture programs. It also offers Business Education, Information Technology Education, Maritime Studies and Teacher Education. (TIP Manual)
Beginning in 2006, the Technological Institute of the Philippines economic educators recognized that traditional teaching approaches in undergraduate economics too often failed to achieve the desired knowledge comprehension or subject matter interest. The Technological Institute of the Philippines address those deficiencies by education research, teacher training and materials development at all educational levels. Based on the testimonials shared to me by the faculty of TIP, large number of students from engineering section who took up economics have really low grade. In first semester of school year 2008-2009 alone 86 percent of the total engineering students under Economics subjects have gotten below average grades. The head of Commerce of Business Education which is our Department chair Mr. Angeles De Guzman had confirmed the said observation based on the school records and manifested from the grades of the students.
Out of this existing dilemma there is a need to explore a new aspect of a teacher's own perceived influence on students—whether control of teaching reinforcement lies within them or in the environment. Theorists labeled this new psychological construct self-efficacy. The idea was that teachers with high self-efficacy believed they could strongly influence student achievement and motivation, while those with low self-efficacy perceived the environment to have the greater influence.

TIP faculty research made by Teves 2004, he said in the early management strategist and economist had already been advocating productivity improvement in the business world. It is an irony that up to this time, the academe, whish is supposed to be the molder of the youth who will soon maneuver the wheels of business and the economy of the nation, has remained silent on this issue.
The TIP school administration is reviewing the existing business curricula and syllabi to ensure that these answer the current needs of the industry in terms of productivity concepts.

In the faculty manual of TIP 2003, it stated that a wise teacher is guided by the effective principles of teaching at all times. Learning task are the main responsibility of the learners/ students while the teacher is entrusted to lead as facilitator of the learning process. To achieve this, the faculty member is required to prepare a weekly lesson/ Activity Plan (WLAP). Every teacher should establish an environment that promotes a high level of learning. A learner feels compelled to pay attention and learn more if he sees the purpose behind and the practical application of the subject and learning activities ahead.

The teacher shall enlighten students about the course description and behavioral objectives, content and target dates of completion, methodology course requirements and schedules of submission which are integral to the development process and the school’s mission and vision.

Analysis of Issues, Gaps and Problems
In an international journal study, according to Bruner, the term scaffolding is used to describe the teacher doing for the student what the student could not currently do for him or herself. For example, the teacher can keep hold of the global aim of an investigation or an attack on a problem while the student attends to details of employing requisite techniques. The term scaffolding goes in and out of favor, but its essence lies in the fading away of the teacher’s structuring so that students come to internalize what the teacher was doing for themselves.

When the student takes over what the teacher has been doing, scaffolding can be said to have taken place, and the teacher can attend to more sophisticated awareness which again the student will be scaffold and then faded into doing for themselves.

Ralph 1998, in his study said that experienced instructors give careful attention to the reliability of their assessment and grading of students’ learning over time. They seek to eliminate any contextual factors that might bias or distort the objectivity of their judgment.

To do this they: provide clear, concise directions and instructions about all course activities; they establish and explain the expectations and assessment standards by which these activities will be evaluated; and they gather data from multiple sources using a variety of methods, media and measurements to provide a more comprehensive, composite, and reliable picture of a students learning progress.

Too, effective teachers recognize the reliability of grading is enhance when students are given the opportunity to submit or perform several smaller assignments or tasks than to base the grade on one or two larger tasks.

In related study made by Genus 1998, he specifies a number of carriers of know-ledge in Economics to deal with another problem concerning the degree to which there has been a preoccupation with internal organizational processes for stimulating learning, to the neglect of other wider sources of knowledge creation and development within industry sectors, networks or occupational communities. These operate at individual, work group, organizational and inter-organizational levels.

Keeping in mind what has been presented on the subject of flexibility and learning Economics. Here, it is now possible to make connections to other treatment of change which further highlight the strategic significance of knowledge or routines and also generate an insight into potential sources of and barriers to their development.
Analysis of Students’ Performance

In one of the finding study made by Firth 1999, he clarifies actions that identifies the signs of low performance. These actions can be depicted by less socializing, procrastinating, being talkative, less participating, not showing up for class meeting, creating ridicule, refuse to recite, resist to do homework and other negative attitudes that shows legitimate concerns and results to low performance in Economics class.

He said, we must learn to handle these manifestations. Change threatens people and they can defend themselves by attacking you. If you sense that you are really being criticized in an unhelpful way rather than receiving interesting feedback, then there are six ways to respond.

First is clarifying. An example is “What exactly in Economics that you do not understand?” Second is confronting. An example is “I need to let you know how your comments relate to Economics subject..” Third is columboing. An example is “Tell me again.., did you mean… let me ask you one more question about Economics.” Fourth is confessing. An example is I take full responsibility for my actions. Here’s what I am going to do to help you understand Economics.” Fifth is Confirming. An example is “I agree with some of what you say about Economics. I also think about these…” Sixth is comforting. An example is “Good point. How can I help you by putting things right that Economics is…” Hayes 1997, reviews research into performance among students, argued that many groupings measures were unreliable, unnecessarily complex, and measured variables which were actually irrelevant to the process. The lack of appropriate techniques in Economics for measuring performance, according to Dyer, it means that most research into groupings suffered from the weaknesses of the tools which were used to evaluate the group and so was not able to provide an accurate, or even halfway accurate picture of group performance.

According to Andal 1991, he kept in mind what the average student would need to know to have a basic understanding of current economic issues. He said, “we tried to keep the book as user friendly as possible, that is, we wanted to build on knowledge that students could easily grasp.”

In a related findings made by Rosas 2004, First chair, Board for Professional Teachers, providing early exposure to the realities of the classroom is essential to the success of the student. The student teaching guarantees exposure to the realities of the classroom as a requirement for graduation. However, it comes rather late and the time for field experience on and off campus is quite limited.

Dr. Rosas enumerated the long starting problems with traditional teacher education programs which have been documented. These problems can be made to improve in teaching Economics subjects to Engineering students. These difficulties include inadequate time, fragmentation, uninspired teaching methods, superficial curriculum and traditional views of schooling. He emphasized that teacher education in the Philippines has to reengineer, reinvent and restructure its existing programs to address global realities.

In a related study conducted by Sutaria, former Innotech Director, many of the schools at all levels are still stuck in the past. They still cling to the traditional paradigms of teaching as telling, learning as listening, and knowledge as facts. Learners in Economics are asked to remember what they are told or lectured on and how they are taught to perform specific learning tasks and are judged as excellent learners if they did especially well on the recall tasks. Students are treated like sponges that absorb learning tasks and replay them when squeezed. They do not experience the joy of discovery, of constructing new meanings, of identifying and sowing problems, of creating new forms. of learning with a group that is self propelled, and thus are not adequately prepared for life in the more complex world of tomorrow.

According to Watson 1994, he quoted Iain Mangham: Organizations are created, sustained and changed through talk. There is nothing good or bad in this world or any other but talking makes it so. Organizations, enterprises of great pitch and moment, are constituted by active, willful individuals talking to each other. It is through words that we teach Economics, appeal, persuade, request, coax, cozen, assign, declare, debate, agree, insult, confer, teach, advise, complain, irritate, anger, correct, socialize, recruit, threaten, promise, praise, ridicule, condemn and dismiss.

In a proposed findings made by Baker III 2000, he said that the relationship between the use of plus/minus grading and it’s actual and perceived impact on grades has received considerable attention on all educational levels. The author examined the overall effect of plus/minus grading system on management students and faculty at a mid-sized public university. The effect of the grading system on students was examined mathematically by determining the grade distribution of students under both the old grading system and the new system was examined through responses to a questionnaire. The results of the study showed that both students and faculty in Economics had negative perceptions of the plus/minus system the university adopted when it was introduced and that the new system had virtually no effect on the aggregate GPA of the students.

Identification of Best Practices

A journal study conducted by Philippine Association of University Women, they cite Dewey, Lewin, and Piaget as the foremost exponents of experiential learning. Everyone Dewey suggested that to learn from experience one “essentially makes a backward-forward connection between what he does to things and what he learns from these things”. Experience alone is not sufficient for best learning in Economics. It should be analyze to enable a learner to formulate concepts and principles in Economics applicable to new solutions.

Based on the findings made by Eggen and Lavechak 2001, they outline useful strategies for teaching Economics. According to them, Economics teachers have three interconnected goals when they utilize the Discussion Model in their classroom. They want student to think about Economics content in a deeper, more analytical, and critical manner. They also want to develop students thinking skills. In addition, they want to help students develop their social interaction skills and thus learning more effectively about Economics.

Discussion have definite content focus, and teachers use this strategy to help students develop deeper insights into topics in Economics they have been studying. Research suggest that learning increases when use ideas in meaningful activities. Discussion provide opportunities for students to connect ideas, take positions and defend these position with others.

Students’ ability to think Economics issues increases when thinking skills are embedded in content-rich, meaningful activities, Discussions provide opportunities for students to examine and integrate ideas, analyze different perspectives and evaluate alternate solutions.
In the same study made by Bean 1996, in his book Engaging Ideas, one of the best ways to coach critical thinking and to promote the kind of productive talk that leads to thoughtful and elaborative writing in Economics is a goal directed use of small groups. Economics teachers who have tried small groups but others prefer to use class time for lecturing, leading whole class discussions, or conducting other activities that involve the whole class rather than autonomous groups.

Small groups can be a strategy for Economics teachers to be considered. It is best characterized as a goal oriented use of small groups aimed at giving students supervised practice in disciplinary thinking under the tutelage of the teacher as coach. This method has a consistent rhythm: the teacher presents a disciplinary problem requiring critical thinking; students work together in small groups to seek a consensus solution to the problem; and the teacher coaches students performance by observing their process and critiquing their solutions.

A related study on teaching made by Andresen 2000, he said that it requires a spirit of enquiry, critique, reflection and most of all passion. Teaching Economics which is not accompanied by our own enquiry, reflection and passion for a subject matter in which we are wholly engaged becomes merely a technical service for customers and is stripped of its critical and moral purposes.

In teaching Economics there is to be an equally intense caring, but it is one which through the personal discipline requisite to making it accessible, intelligible, fascinating and worthy of being loved by students, will serve to demonstrate something significantly beyond a caring for subject matter at such. It demonstrates, a passionate caring for learners as persons and for their growth. Coade 1997, he emphasized that in developing creative people. “You should train and develop students to have an imaginative approach toward problem solving on their own. Encourage students to search for an operational problem in Economics affecting performance. The aim should be to develop a set of students who can focus on the skills needed to exhibit initiative and implement business ideas in the real setting.

Recognition is also one form of a direct opportunity for an individual access to another project which interest the individual or the chance of presenting a set of ideas or new concepts to their class. Recognition is used to build flexibility, which is important at all levels in school specifically in college levels. The recognition system has to recognize the importance of the flexibility required to work among groups and to take on new skills and knowledge. A related journal of innovative higher education made by Mc Daniel 2000, he proposed that innovative models in Economics that focus on learning outcomes engage faculty in new ways of facilitating and assessing learning, while their institutions seek to support and reward their participation. Innovators from four different institutions provide an overview of their approaches to implementing principles of outcomes-based education, compare their models, and explore the changes that are precipitated in the roles, rewards, resources, structures and models.

According to Platter 1995, predicts a transformation to new roles in which faculty in Economics first define the product of educational programs in terms of specified standards and competencies at a certified level of quality. Second, assess student learning in light of explicit objectives and learning outcomes in courses and relate them to larger more comprehensive learning goals. Third, mentor students to take the most efficient and meaningful path toward these stated learning goals.

In a journal study of faculty development made by Polirstok 2007, she said that faculty members at colleges and universities nationwide are required to develop an academic record that includes numerous publications in peer reviewed journals. The old adage ”publish or perish” continues to provide an important lens for viewing faculty qualification for tenure and promotion. Ironically most new faculty in education typically arrive from doctoral programs with little publication experience and often without a research plan for how to develop their dissertations into several publishable manuscripts. “Despite the pressure to publish, faculty receives little instruction in academic writing. Facilitating the development of writing skills and an understanding of the writing process can improve writing productivity among faculty.”

Developing an Effective Methodology

A journal study made in Southeast Asia and Pacific, one observes that the world is constantly and rapidly changing. A small country needs to be aware of the emerging trend and act early and decisively. I would like to quote from this report, on the topic of skills development. Our education system should in the longer term be re-oriented in three important ways. First it must be more broad-based and focus on educating “the whole person.” Second, it must allow for more creativity; and third it must stress the need for continuous training or re-training.

I am in full agreement with the above farsighted view. According to Bingham 1990, he introduces what economics is and then he goes with a check list with what the student should be able to know for the whole chapter. An example to this is that the checklist could include, the student should be able to write the formal definition of economics, give two good reasons for studying economics, define descriptive economics, economic theory and policy economics, distinguish between induction and deduction in economic reasoning. He proceeded with chapter outline, with the principles and theories, He also outline important terms to remember. A short fill-in questions is followed. problems and projects are also given for the students to enhance their skills in problem solving. This is really to immerse the students and familiarize themselves with the lesson.

In the book of Pagoso 2004, an Introduction is given just like most of the presentation of any other books. What I like most is that he presented first the importance of Economics to instill to the minds of students the relevance and significance of the subject in our times. He said, “ To have a working knowledge of economics is to understand a very important part of human life. We go through life concerned with learning a living, earning money and what money can buy. Thus an understanding of economics is an understanding of life’s principal preoccupation.

A working knowledge of economics would make the students and the citizens economically literate. A big part of the new and the contents of the newspapers are concerned with the economics decisions of business and the government. If people make no effort to understand economics issues and do not make intelligent issues and do not make intelligent position about them, they surrender all power to those who claim to understand.”

Morgan 2000, said that one powerful influence of technology in our culture is the
trend to move away from works and language and towards pictures and symbols. This trend may be dangerous since it has long being recognized that verbal thought is vital in many aspects of high culture within existing civilizations. It is interesting to note that one of the most compelling aspects of the world wide web is its emphasis on non text media, such as visual images and sounds. To many, this raises the concern about whether technology is shaping us into passive consumers rather than active producers.

In an inspiring study made by Klumer 2000, he said that it begins to address exactly what people want to know. The UNESCO work plan states to identify elements of
unsustainable development that concern them and how to address them. Students specially in Economics need to learn how to reflect critically on their place in the world and to consider what sustainability means to them and their communities. They need to practice envisioning alternative ways of development and living, evaluating alternative visions, learning how to negotiate and justify choices between visions, and making plans for achieving desired ones, and participating in community life to bring such visions into effect. These are the skills and abilities which underlie good citizenship, and make education for sustainability part of and process of building an informed, concerned and active populace. In this way, education for sustainability contributes to education for democracy and peace.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design of the Study
This research is basically an evaluative study on the current methodology in teaching Economics for non business students for the school year 2008-2009. An interview on the faculty and engineering students taking up economics in top 5 engineering schools in NCR will be conducted to address the objectives of the study.
This research method is designed to describe the nature of a situation, conditions, and practices of teaching Economics in top 5 engineering schools. It is appropriate to employ the survey questionnaire to the present study as it seeks to obtain information about the practices of the current teaching methodology .

Sampling Technique
A randomized sampling of 50 faculties and 30% of the total population of Engineering students taking up Economics enrolled in the five schools offering engineering courses will be used in the study. Only those students who are enrolled in the school year 2008-2009 will be chosen to participate in the study. They were asked to relate their practices in their respective school on the current teaching methodology used.
The researcher will conduct interviews with the sample size mentioned above. The participants of the study all came from the 5 engineering schools specifically in TIP-Technological Institute of the Philippines, Letran, Mapua, Don Bosco and RTU-Rizal Technological University.

Research Instrument/ Tool

The instrument to be used in this research for data collection is a questionnaire with two major parts. The first part of questionnaire is for the faculty in Economics teaching in the top 5 Engineering schools and the other part is for the Engineering students taking up Economics subjects. The questionnaire parts include Demographic characteristics, current situation of the teaching methodology used, issues, gaps, problems of the current system, students performance, review of teaching styles, facilities used, books used, qualification of teachers. best practices in effective teaching in Economics subjects locally and internationally and the effective methodology in the teaching of Economics for the students to appreciate.

Respondents of the Study
The researcher will ask 30% of the total population of Engineering students
taking up Economics enrolled in 5 engineering schools specifically in TIP-Technological Institute of the Philippines, Letran, Mapua, Don Bosco and RTU-Rizal Technological University. Faculties of these 5 schools mentioned above will also be my respondents and will be asked to answer the questions in the evaluation of current teaching methodology used.

Study Site
This study will be conducted in TIP QC campus, TIP Manila Campus and the campus of the top engineering schools: Letran, Mapua, Don Bosco and RTU-Rizal Technological University.

Statistical Test
The kruskal-wallis test of independence is the appropriate tool to be used in deciding the result whether you teach Economics in the Engineering course improve the non business student’s appreciation of the subject or not, will substantially increase understanding and ability to solve Economic problems and issues.

Expected Output
At the end of the research, a new methodology in teaching Economics non business students would have been proposed and implemented.

Questionnaire No.____ Interviewer:___________
Date:________________

AN EVALUATION OF TEACHING METHODOLOGY IN ECONOMICS FOR

NON BUSINESS STUDENTS IN TECHNOLOGICAL

INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Questionnaire for Teachers

Direction: Provide a check mark on the space provided that best fits your answer.
I. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Name : (Optional)
Age :
___below 21 yrs.
___21-30 yrs.
___31-40
___41-50
___51-60
Civil Status:
____Single
____Married
____Separated
Educational Attainment:
___Undergraduate
___Masters Degree
___Doctoral
Course Major:
____Economics
____Management
____Accounting
____Engineering

Employment:
____Regular
____Part-time
Income Level:
___ Below P10,000
___10,000-14,999
___15,000-19,999
___Above 20,000

Are you currently teaching?
___Yes
___No

If yes what school/university?
___Mapua
___TIP
___Don Bosco
___RTU
___Letran
___Others pls. specify

What subjects do you teach?
___ Economics
___Accounting
___Management
___Engineering Subjects
___General Education
___Others pls. specify

How long are you teaching Economics?
___Less than 3 years
___ 3-6 yrs.
___7-10 yrs.
___ more than 10 yrs.

II. Current Situation

Is Economics part of Engineering Curriculum?
___Yes
___No

If yes, why?
___prescribed by the school
___ prescribed by the CHED
___Others pls. specify

If no, why not?
___minor subject
___electives
___not relevant to the curriculum
___not prescribed by the institution
___Others pls. specify

Is Economics subject regularly taught?
___1st yr 1st Semester ___3rd yr 1st Semester
___2nd yr 2nd Semester ___3rd yr 2nd Semester
___2nd yr 1st Semester ___4th yr 1st Semester
___2nd yr 2nd Semester ___4th yr 2nd Semester

Is Economics taught effectively?
___Yes
___No

If yes, why?
____ Proper methodology used
____Teachers are effective
____Appropriate syllabi used
____Proper references used
___Others pls. specify

If no, why not?
___Inappropriate syllabi used
___Teacher not effective
___Improper references used
___Methodology incorrect
___Others pls. specify

Is there a method used in teaching this subject?
___Yes
___No

If yes, what are these methods?
___Expository
___Exploratory
___Enquiry Based
___Others pls. specify
If Expository, does this methodology work?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what are the proofs?
___Subject appreciated ___Knowledge gained ___ Others pls. specify
___Skills obtained ___Able to solve problems
If no, why not?
___Subject not appreciated ___insufficient Knowledge ___Others pls. specify
___No Skills obtained ___inability to solve problems
If Exploratory, does this methodology work?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what are the proofs?
___Subject appreciated ___Knowledge gained ___ Others pls. specify
___Skills obtained ___Able to solve problems
If no, why not?
___Subject not appreciated ___insufficient Knowledge ___Others pls. specify
___No Skills obtained ___inability to solve problems
If Enquiry based, does this methodology work?
___Yes
___No

If yes, what are the proofs?
___Subject appreciated ___Knowledge gained ___ Others pls. specify
___Skills obtained ___Able to solve problems
If no, why not?
___Subject not appreciated ___insufficient Knowledge ___Others pls. specify
___No Skills obtained ___inability to solve problems
If others, please specify________ .Does this methodology work?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what are the proofs?
___Subject appreciated ___Knowledge gained ___ Others pls. specify
___Skills obtained ___Able to solve problems
If no, why not?
___Subject not appreciated ___insufficient Knowledge ___Others pls. specify
___No Skills obtained ___inability to solve problems

III Students Performance

What sort of responses do the students show towards Economics subjects?
___Clearly understand
___Difficulty in understanding
___Others pls. specify
Are there any factors that caused poor performance of these students?
___Teacher not effective
___Instructional aides are lacking
___Subject outline is boring
___Books used are not updated
___Facilities are insufficient
___Others pls. specify

If the teacher is not effective, what are the proofs?
___Teacher cannot motivate
___Teacher do not give relevant examples
___Teaching style is boring
___Teacher is too traditional
___Others pls. specify
If Instructional aides are lacking, what are the proofs?
___There is no weekly lesson activity plan
___There is no seat plan
___There is no class card
___There is no grading sheet
___There is attendance sheet
___Others pls. specify
If books used are not updated, what are the proofs?
___Old edition is used
___No worksheet is provided
___No updated case study
___No approved textbook used
___Others pls. specify
If facilities are insufficient, what are the proofs?
___Not ventilated rooms
___No air condition rooms
___Not enough working tables
___Not enough light
___No powerpoint projector
___No blackboard/chalk
___No DVD/VCD player
___Others pls. specify
If others pls. specify, what are the proofs?
___________
IV. Issues, Gaps and Problems

Do the students find difficulty in understanding?
___Yes
___No
If yes, why? ___lack of reading,
___ lack of explanation given
___Others pls. specify
___lack of initiative to learn,
___not listening well
___inadequate materials
If no, why?
___Students can solve problems
___Students can recite correctly
___Students can write an essay on the subject
___They participate well
___Students can explain the subject
___Others pls. specify
What are the problems encounter?
___Students keep on absences
___Students not reciting
___They are not participating
___Students are complaining
___Others pls. specify
What teaching methodology can be used to solve these problems?
___Expository
___Exploratory
___Enquiry Based
___Others pls. specify

Will those suggested mechanism will improve?
___Yes
___No
If yes, why? ___Students increase their interest on the subject
___Students will be motivated to study
___Students have freedom to ask and reason out.
___Others pls. specify

V. Best Practices in teaching Economics

Are you aware of how they teach Economics in other Engineering Schools?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what do you know?
_____________________
What have you heard?
_____________________
Are you aware of teaching methodology used in other countries?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what are the teaching methodologies used?
___Expository
___Exploratory
___Enquiry Based
___Experiential
___Portfolio
___Lecture
___Others pls. specify
Have you tried these teaching methodology before?
___Yes
___No
If yes? what are these methodologies?
___Expository
___Exploratory
___Enquiry Based
___Experiential
___Portfolio
___Lecture
___Others pls. specify

Are these teaching methodologies applied before effective?
___Yes
___No
If yes, what are the results:
___motivated students
___new learning
___new experiences
___increase performance
___create interest
___students take initiative
___Others pls. specify

If no, why not?
___demotivated students
___students not learning
___decrease performance
___lower interest
___bad experiences
___conflicting behavior
___Others pls. specify

VI. Proposed Methodology in the teaching of Economics to non business students.

Are there other ways of improving in teaching Economics?
_____________________________________________________
Can you suggest concrete examples to a more interactive teaching?
_____________________________________________________

Do you think students will like
___more PowerPoint presentation
___more relevant examples
___more case study
___more economics activities
___more economics exercises
___more economics problem solving
___more instructional materials
___more references
___new textbooks
___simplified graphing exercises
___more illustrations
___interactive teaching styles
___Others pls. specify

Which do you think is the most effective teaching methodology should be used?
___Expository
___Exploratory
___Enquiry Based
___Experiential
___Portfolio
___Lecture
___Others pls. specify

If yes, why do you think in your assessment it is the most effective teaching methodology?
___Students will increase their interest on the subject
___Students will be more motivated in their study
___Students develop their organization skills
___Students will be able to solve economic problems
___Students will gain more knowledge on the subject
___Others pls. specify

If no, why not?
___There are other methodology that is not discovered.
___There are other methodology that is not introduced
___ There are other methodology that is yet to study
___Others pls. specify

Is there any methodology you want to suggest you think can be effective aside what we mention above?___Yes ___No
If yes, what are they?
___constructivist method
___dialectic method
___performance based
___portfolio
___project based
___Others pls. specify

If no, why not?
___ No other methodology can be effective
____No other methodology can be used
____All methodologies are mention
____Others pls. specify

TIMETABLE
(June 2009 – June 2010)

ACTIVITY DATE PERSONNEL IN-CHARGE
I. Preparatory Phase
1. Organization of Working Group June 1-20 Project Leader
2. Questionnaire Design
(including revisions) June 20-30 Project Leader/Statistician
3. Preparation of Field Operation and
Processing Manuals and Other Administrative Forms July 1-19 Project Leader/Statistician
4. Printing of Questionnaires and Manuals July 20 – Aug. 16 Project Leader
5. Procurement of Survey Supplies and Materials Aug. 17 – 31 Project Leader
6. Preparation/Evaluation and Finalization of Field Operation Plan and Target Dates for Submission of Survey Forms Sept. 1-15 Project Leader
7. Computer System Design and Program Development Sept. 16-30 Project Leader/Programmer
8. Recruitment of Interviews and Allocation of Survey Materials October 1-15 Project Leader
II. Briefing
1. Enumeration October 16-30 Project Leader
2. Manual and Machine Processing November 1-15 Project Leader
III. Field Operation Nov. 16-30 Project Leader
IV. Data Processing
1.Manual Processing Dec. 01-Dec.. 15 Project Leader/Statistician
2.Machine Processing Dec.16-Dec. 30 Project Leader/Statistician
V. Data Evaluation, Tabulation and Final
Analysis Jan. 5, 2010-March. 31, 2010 Project Leader/Statistician
VI. Finalization and Submission of the
Project Proposal April 01, 2010- June 15- 2010 Project Leader

BUDGET
(June 2009 – June 2010)

I. Personnel ………………………………………………………………. P230,000.00

1 Project Leader for 5 months @ Php20,000/mo …………………… 200,000.00
1 Statistician for 4 consultations 2 Php2,000.00/consultation ……… 8,000.00
1 Economist for 4 consultations 2 Php2,000.00/consultation ……… 8,000.00 1Programmer ………………………………………………………….. 4,000.00
Interviewers for 100 questionnaires @ P100/questionnaire ….……. 10,000.00

II. Transportation Expenses ...…………………………………………… P35,000.00
30 Trips to Libraries in Metro Manila …………………………………. 15,000.00
30 Trips to Selected Engineering Schools in Metro Manila …………. 10,000.00
30 Trips from residence to TIP campus………………………………. 10,000.00

III. Supplies and Materials …………………………………………………. P15,360.00
6 reams bond paper @ Php250/ream .………………………………. 1,500.00
2 boxes Mongol #2 pencil @ 50/box …………………………………. 100.00
3 pcs. Staedler eraser @ 15/pc ……………………………………… 45.00
3 pcs. Sharpener @ 10/pc …………………………………………… 30.00
1 pc. Puncher …………………………………………………………… 250.00
10 pcs. Plastic folder @ 10/pc …………………………………………. 100.00
10 pcs. Cartolina @ 5/pc ………………………………………………. 50.00
2 pcs. Stapler with staple remover @ 175/pc ………………………... 350.00
6 pcs. Computer Ink (black&colored) @ 1,500/pc ……………………. 9,000.00
5 pcs. Internet Pre-paid card @ 100/pc ………………………………. 500.00
10 pcs. Pre-paid card @ 300/pc ……………………………………….. 3,000.00
2 pc SIM pack @ 100/pc ……………………………………………… 200.00
5 pcs. Blank CD @ 8/pc ………………………………………………… 40.00
1 bot. paste ………………………………………………………………. 35.00
1box fastener .…………………………………………………………… 160.00

IV. MOOE (Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses) ………… P40,000.00
Rental of computer facilities …………………………………………….. 5,000.00
Rental of Vehicles ……………………….. ……………………………… 30,000.00
Gasoline ………………………………………………………………….. 5,000.00

V. Sundry …………………………………………………………………….. P20,000.00

Tokens (to be given to selected respondents) ………………………… 10,000.00
Entertainment Cost ……………………………………………………… 10,000.00

GRAND TOTAL ………………………………………………………… P340,360.00

Literature Cited

Andal Jr., Sergio M & Cuyegkeng, Jose Mario I. Discovering Economics, Cacho Publishing House Inc. 1991 p 1-2

Andresen, Lee W. Journal of Teaching in Higher Education Taylor and Frances Ltd 2000 Vol. 5 No. 1 2000 p. 24-26

Bean, John C. “Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s guide to integrate writing, critical thinking and active learning in the classroom(1st Edition) San Francisco Jossey-Bass Publishers 1996 p 183-184

Coade, Neil. Be Creative International Thomson Business Press 1997 p. 87-89

Eggen, Paul D. & Lavechak, Donald P. Strategies for Teachers 4th Edition Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon. A Pearson Education Company p 92-93

Dr. Rosas, Nilo L. Philippine Normal University Journal on Teacher Education Vol 1 No. 1 June 2004 Center for Research and Development in Education p.12-15

Faculty Manual TIP –Technological Institute of the Philippines October 2003 p.14-15
Fien, John & Maclean, Rupert. Journal of Science Education and Technology. Vo. 9 No. 1 March 2000 Klumer Academic/ Plenum Publishers p.43-44

Firth, David Smart Thing to Know About Change. Capstone Publishing Limited 1999 p. 93-95

Journal of Engineering Education Vol.23 No.1 & 2 Sept. 93. Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia and the Pacific 23-24

Mason, John. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology Volume 31 No.1 January –February 2000 Taylor & Frances Ltd. p. 98-99

Mc Daniel, Elizabeth A, et al. Innovative Higher Education Vol. 25 No. 2 Winter 2000 Human Sciences Press Inc. p. 143-145

Morgan, Konrad et al. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol.31 No.1 by British Educational Communications and Technology Agency January 2000 p. 76

Pagoso, Cristobal M & Benito, Virgilio R. Principles of Economics 2004 Edition Nelson Publication

Polirstok, Susan R. & Digley, Annette D. Journal of Faculty Development Vol. 21 No. 2 May 2007 by New Forum Press, Inc. p. 109

Ralph, Edwin G. Phd Motivating Teaching in Higher Education: A Manual for Faculty Development. New Forum Press Inc. 1998 p.8-10

Teves, Victor G. Research Journal Vol.1 No.1 Research and Development Office TIP April 2004 p. 7-8

Watson, Tony J. “In Search of Management” International Thomson Business Press 1994 p. 165-166

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