Globalization through Technology


The term Globalization has been quite influencive in many sectors, particularly in job sector. Globalization is a difficult phenomenon to explain properly. Science and technology has quite importance in every aspect of life, but particularly the way in which technology is globally integrating the peoples of the world. The word globalization can be heard quite oftenly in political and economic dialogue. This term has brought new opportunities. The life span for the technical skills is getting shorter and shorter, when it comes to the knowledge based society. And for that purpose, the technical professionals should be up to date as far as globalization trends are concern. education is rapidly evolving as the pace of technological innovation in society accelerates. It is because excellent technical skills are required by complex and innovative global environment. For global market, knowledge and teamwork skills are essentials.

I. Introduction
There is no second opinion in saying that globalization is accelerating. The globalization is supported by the gradual but rapid development in the telecommunication and other technologies. Technical environment is quite frequently advancing. Globalization has re-shaped the environment globally. World is becoming more and more interdependent economically, as the technical and even non-technical companies are spreading out their operations marketing themselves across the boundaries of countries. This globally corporate environment forces the technical professionals to be a part of the international teams and work as a unit with them and consider their solutions for the context of the other’s national interests. Technology has influenced the globalization of job in many ways. It is inevitable to stop the globalization of jobs in today’s world. We should keep this in mind that as globalization has brought not only the revolution in jobs, but also brought some uncertainties regarding businesses and especially technical professions.
There is also the problem of the recognition of technical studies internationally, which plays vital role for the growth of mobility of skilled specialists across the borders. It is obvious that technical development rouses the economic growth of a country and the development of the modernized society is co-related with the advancement in the technology of the country [1].

II. DEVELOPMENT AND SOURCES
Technological developments are considered to be the main factor which is running most of the globalization processes. Before discussing in details the results of the technological developments, we should be looking into the definition of the technology as the sociological term so that we can explore different roles of technology in globalization process. Technology can be defined as the socialized knowledge by which we can produce goods and provide services. And this definition can be explained in much better way when we relate our definition with five components like, knowledge, possession, instruments, change and the last one is production.
Now a days, technology is somehow related to the knowledge, because technology is been developing in the research and development institutions and therefore it is the result of the intellectual activities. If we consider the possession of technology then obviously people who have the technology, also controls it. And it has ultimately something to do with the economics and the politics. Next comes the component known as instruments. Instruments are related with human usage, whenever an instrument is being used, it shows the human interaction with instruments, sometimes in physical ways like, computers or vacuum cleaners and sometimes in immaterial ways like algorithms or maybe the programming in computers. Change and technology can be related with each other, because technology has changed the world dramatically with its innovations and advancements. This change has been witnessed especially after the 1960’s revolutions in microelectronics field. And the final component which we mentioned above is production. We need technology to produce goods like, cars, televisions or maybe clothes, and services like security or banking. Technology has improved our capacities to work and produce [2].

1) Steps towards Globalization:
The invention of the script can be considered as the first advancement in the technological field, which has helped and start the contribution towards the globalization. With this script man could store and transmit information more efficiently, which could help in increasing the developments. There were couriers in old ages consisting of people who used to carry and deliver mails and other written materials either by running or riding horse. This limited amount of information transmitted, received and stored was not sufficient for a large-scale state. Invention of the print machine with moving letters by Gutenberg was the most important revolutionary technological development, which made possible even a larger global geography. The divulging of newspaper started the new era of globalization when both commercial and political news were unavoidable for the decision makers [2].
Then telegraph, by Samuel Morse, was another achievement towards the globalization. It separated the transportation and communication from each other, and hence this technology got popular in civilian as well as military ranks. Telephone by Graham bell in 1861 has contributed its part for globalization. With the invention of Radio, it became possible to contact and communicate to such locations where no one has gone or cannot travel to. Hertz, Marconi, Maxwell and Tesla have contributed a lot in the invention of the radio, which later become the communication tool for the armed forces. Radio, in year 1920, started to be used for commercial purposes and mass communication. There were great advancements in the technology of transportation during the 20th century. When the ships became safer to travel and airplanes were produced. And first flight took place in 1919, between London and Paris. Jet planes and televisions were achievements of 1950. 1957 marked the most important step in the history of globalization when USSR launched its Sputnik as the first man-made satellite. Satellites made it possible to build a fully reliable global network, compensating the radio networks’ ionosphere fading problem. The first reliable transatlantic telephone cable TAT-1 was laid in 1956. And then first transatlantic fiber cable TAT-8 was laid in 1988 for faster and reliable networks.

2) Technology used Globally:
Digital technologies have started so many different ways for the global networks. Satellites are lying at the heart of the global networks. At the moment Turkey is having its own three satellites, positioned at 42 degrees East and 31.3 degrees East. The foundation of EUTELSAT in 1974 was another response by the European countries in the “space race”. Techno globalism can be properly explained by the terms internet and e-commerce. This term can be taken as the ideology which explains globalism on technological grounds. Techno globalist claims that globalism has been made irresistible with the help of technology [2].

III. ANALYSIS
Technological innovative ideas have contributed a lot in moving towards globalization by making the infrastructure of trans-world connections. In particular, developments in means of transport, communications, and data processing have allowed global links to become denser, faster, more reliable, and much cheaper. Fast globalization and globalization on the large scale has been depended on the innovations which relates to the coaxial and later fibre-optic cables, jet engines, packaging and preservation techniques, semiconductor devices, computer software, and so on. In other words we can say that without physical methods, global relations could not effect cross planetary contacts. After technology, regulation has also played its vital role in steps towards globalization. International links would not be possible, if there would not be some rules and procedures. For example, communications depends strongly on the technical standardizations. Then production also relies globally on the liberalization, which means capitol controls and other state imposed laws and restrictions to monitor the movement of resources between the different countries. Tax laws, labour legislation, and environmental codes can also be either encouraging or discouraging the global investment. In short, globalization requires the regulatory body. Capitalism has been another factor for moving to globalization. Capitalists follow the trend of globalization, because in this way production facilities are available for the sites where the cost is less and the earning is much.
Other urging impulses to the globalization have roused from the rationalism as the predominant mode of knowledge. Some analyst have opinions about globalization that globalization has a multi-causal dynamic involving the interrelation of several forces [3].

IV. ETHICAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
Despite of the positive impacts of globalization, it has created a system which has benefitted the more developed countries from the less developed ones and leaving them as they are in dust [4].
Globalization has already created some problems related to the ethics, which are no coming to the surface with even stronger force. First of all globalization has brought the idea of individualism, which is challenging the social cohesion [5]. With the more and more advancements in the technology, the e-waste is becoming more of an issue. There has not been found any proper way to dump that waste.
[6]
Electronics companies are using hazardous materials in their products, which are not good for the human beings. Especially lead is causing damage to the environment. Researchers are trying to find the alternative of lead, but they have not found it yet. Disposal of E-waste is a global problem which is mostly done by land filling and incineration. The waste which is landfilled, produces contaminated leachates polluting the ground water resources and if waste is disposed on the land, the sludge and the acids produced from the melted components causes acidification of soil whereas, the incineration of E-waste causes air pollution due to emission of highly toxic fumes and gases.
The general challenge which globalization is facing that to make the global system more efficient and more equitable, which could be the best possible way to reduce poverty and the inequality [7]. Another factor which is a challenge to the globalization is the fear of instability by globalization, which is specifically among the developing countries [8].

V. CONCLUSION
Some argue that globalization is driven by technology, and that it represents an unstoppable force. Globalization through technology has created more chances for the better communication flow for both less and more developed countries. It has given opportunities to increase the trade and education flow and then allocation of better resources to meet standards around the world. The less developed countries have gained a lot from the techno globalization, by bringing growth and development to their industries like employment, technical education etc. As a whole, globalization through technology has not brought the negative impact on the developing countries. These countries has been profited and developed into a more successful region through the technology. The countries which could not take part in the globalization, lack certain factors. Those factors can be the good geographic market location, by which that county would be able to trade at its best, and the other factors can be the institutions and supporting policies, these factors are required to resist against the corruption and the poverty in some cases [4].

VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I acknowledge course convenor, Prof. Dr. Sherif Mohamed,Griffith University, Queensland, Australia for his support and sharing of knowledge throughout the whole course, in semester. Due to his help, I have been able to produce best of me in the assignments.

REFERENCES
[1] Yulia Stukalina, "GLOBALIZATION AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION: PREPARING STUDENTS FOR THE 21st CENTURY PROFESSIONS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,” Oct. 22, 2009. [PDF/Adobe Acrobat]. Available: http://www.tsi.lv/Research/Conference/MIP_2009/10.pdf. [Accessed: Oct. 22, 2009].
[2] “TECHNOLOGY and GLOBALIZATION,” Oct 22, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://mediaif.emu.edu.tr/pages/atabek/GCS7.html. [Accessed: Oct. 22, 2009].
[3] “What factors have contributed to globalization,” 2009. [Online]. Available: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080324070150AAvOfhH . [Accessed: Oct. 20, 2009].
[4] "The Influence of Globalization," Global envision, Feb. 21, 2005. [online]. Available: http://www.globalenvision.org/library/3/732. [Accessed: Oct. 21, 2009].
[5] Joe Thomas, "Globalization creating new ethical problems in Asia," The Advertiser-Tribune.com, Dec. 9, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.advertiser-tribune.com/page/content.detail/id/501961.html?nav=5004. [Accessed: Oct. 21, 2009].
[6] "Electronic waste," in the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2001. [Online]. Available: Oxford Reference Online, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_waste . [Accessed: Oct. 24, 2009].
[7] Stanley Fischer,“Globalization and Its Challenges,” 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.iie.com/fischer/pdf/fischer011903.pdf . [Accessed: Oct. 20, 2009].
[8] John W. Sewell, "Challenges of Globalization," Carnegie Council, June 5, 1998. [Online]. Available: http://www.cceia.org/resources/publications/dialogue/1_11/relevance_social/588.html. [Accessed: Oct. 21, 2009].

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