Influences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males on Their Reproductive Health in Tehsil Summandri


ABSTRACT
Reproductive health is a basic human right which refers that a state of complete physical, social, and mental well being. The basic objectives of the research were to know the influences socio-economic status of married males on their reproductive health. The universe of the present study was (Tehsil Summandri) Faisalabad city. A simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of areas. The sample for present study was 180 respondents (Males who was married). An interview schedule was developed in the light of objectives of the study. Before collecting the actual data, in order to check the workability, validity of the interviewing schedule, pre- testing was necessary in the same universe. The data collected was statistically analyzed by using computer application software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Gamma statistics was applied to ascertain the relationship between certain independent and dependent variables. On the basis of the present research/ some measures were suggested to slow down the high fertility rate in the country and to improve the reproductive health status of the individuals.

INTRODUCTION

The fundamental problem that the world is facing today is a substantial increase in population. It is particularly important for the developing countries which are striving hard for improving the socio economic conditions of their people. Gender is socio economic determined, it is it refers to masculine and feminine qualities, behavior patterns, roles and responsibilities etc. It is variable and not constant and changes from time to time, culture to culture and society to society and even family to family. Many other practices like early marriage, sexual and domestic violence contribute to all ill reproductive health (Mussarat, 2003).

Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have safe and satisfying sex life and they have the capability to reproduce and freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so". It has got major boost since the time it has been illustrated in the international conference on population and development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994. The issue was also discussed in Beijing that reproductive and the sexuality are the basic human right (Mir, 2003).

The Ministry of Population Welfare has been mainly responsible for family planning services. However, the ministry of Health with its lager service delivery network has a greater share of responsibility of providing reproductive health services. In particular, the national programme for FP and PHC represents the largest scale intervention for the delivery of FP and RH services in the form of the Lady Health Workers (LHW) now integrated with the Village based family planning workers. Another indicator of increasing integration of reproductive health services is the jointly formulated National Reproductive Health Services Package, which clearly defines the priority areas for intervention and training. (Akmam, 2002).

The health status of women in Pakistan is directly linked to women's low social status. Pakistan's poor position internationally is seen in UNDP's Gender related Development Index (GDI) 2000, where Pakistan currently ranks 135 out of 174 countries. On the Gender Empowerment Measurement (GEM) 1999, Pakistan ranked 100 out of the 102 countries measured. Consequently, improving women's reproductive health through the use of contraceptives and spacing of children will not only improve women's health but also reduce population growth and allow women more time to pursue economic activities (Women's Health Project, 1999). According to data from Demographic and Health Surveys from nine Latin American countries, women with no education have large families of 6-7 children, whereas better educated women have family sizes of 2-3 children, analogous to those of women in the developed world. Despite these wide differentials in actual fertility, desired family size is surprisingly homogeneous throughout the educational spectrum. While the least educated and the best educated women share the small family norm, the gap in contraceptive prevalence between the two groups ranges from 20-50 percentage points. Better educated women have broader knowledge, higher socioeconomic status and less fatalistic attitudes toward reproduction than do less educated women. Results of a regression analysis indicate that these cognitive, economic and attitudinal assets mediate the influence of schooling on reproductive behavior and partly explain the wide fertility gap between educational strata (Juarez, 2004).

OBJECTIVES
1) To find out the influences of socio economic status of individuals upon their reproductive health.
2) To find out the reasons because of which people do not avail the health services regarding reproduction even they are available.
3) To suggest measures to the policy makers for designing an appropriate policy to enhance the reproductive health status for both males.
REVIEW
Amin et al (2002) reported that the demographic literature has always emphasized that the changes in attitude and behavior of population, which influence demographic outcomes, depends on the socio economic and cultural setup of a population and the changes in the circumstances. It is true that in the socio economic change is conceivably related to ones nation of residence, especially because of so much socio economic change is driven by or at least by the changes in ones more immediate environment.

Khan (2003) reported that in Punjab male needs and attitudes regarding reproductive health found that men and service providers all feel that men lack awareness and knowledge of reproductive problems and hold certain misconceptions about sexuality. These issues include infertility, weakness/ sexual “debility” and masturbation. Ahmad (2004) reported that the levels of fertility are strongly associated with level of education. Men who have some education have a TFR at least one and half child lower than those with no education.

Rashida (2004) found that family planning services need to be improved/ with the aim of weakening the obstacles that prevent Pakistani couples from practicing effective contraception. The priority that must be given to improving family planning services. Awareness of contraception is almost universal among Pakistani women who have induced abortions, and a strikingly large fraction of these women have past experience with contraception.

Juarez (2004) reported that the family planning programs have played an important role in providing modern contraceptive methods to women wanting to stop or delay childbearing but whole are not practicing contraception.

Ranjani, (2005) reported that the governments (Pakistan, China, Sri-Lanka, Indonesia) seek to provide integrated RH services through multiple delivery points (PHC clinics, FP/MCH clinics, RTI clinics), with the implementation varying across the kind of clinics.
Anonymous (2005) stated that Pakistan is one of the few Asian countries that, despite a long history of donor support and organized family planning programs, has had a relatively low level of contraceptive use. It is believed that social and cultural factors have mitigated against greater contraceptive use in Pakistan.

METHODOLOGY:

Methodological techniques are very important for analyzing sociological pursuits and empirical research. The universe of the present study was comprised of males who were married. Tehsil Summandri was selected conveniently from Faisalabad city as a universe. The data was collected in (20) days, by the researchers in a face to face interview. Interviewing schedule was devised and data was collected through personal interviews with males. The interviewing schedule consisted of structured and unstructured questions, prepared in English, but at the time of interview, Urdu and Punjabi were used depending on the convenience of the respondents. Pre-testing of the interviewing schedule was conducted on 10 respondents. After pre-testing, necessary changes were introduced in the interviewing schedule.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their economically active male member
Economically active Frequency Percentage
00 10 5.6
1-2 135 75.0
3-4 29 16.1
6+ 6 3.3
Total 180 100

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to number of currently alive children.

Currently alive
children Frequency Percentage
00 11 6.1
1-4 143 79.4
5+ 26 14.4
Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their died children

Name of children Frequency Percentage
00 165 91.7
1-2 15 8.3
Total 180 100
Percentage distribution of the respondents according to any problem
during reproductive life

Any problem Frequency Percentage
Yes 50 27.8
No 127 70.6
NA 3 1.7
Total 180 100
Percentage distribution of the respondents according to use of any form of
Contraception

Use of contraception Frequency Percentage
Yes 51 28.3
No 129 71.7
Total 180 100
Percentage distribution of the respondents according to currently using
Any method of contraception

Currently using Frequency Percentage
Yes 59 32.8
No 121 67.2
Total 180 100

Higher the educational attainment lower will be the number of children.
Association between education of the respondents and their number of children.

Total No Wedu Total
Children Nil Primary Middle Secondary Graduation Master Nil
00 0 0 4 0 1 1 6
.0% .0% 66.7% .0% 16.7% 16.7% 100.0%
1-4 34 34 11 38 19 11 147
23.1% 23.1% 7.5% 25.9% 12.9% 7.5% 100.0%
5+ 22 1 2 1 1 0 27
81.5% 3.7% 7.4% 3.7% 3.7% .0% 100.0%
Total 56 35 17 39 21 12 180
31.1% 19.4% 9.4% 21.7% 11.7% 6.7% 100.0%
Lower the age at the time of marriage higher will be the number of
children.
Association between age at the time of marriage of the respondents and their number of children.

No Of Total Age mar Total
Children 14-23 24-35 14-23
00 4 2 6
66.7% 33.3% 100.0%
1-4 37 110 147
25.2% 74.8% 100.0%
5+ 13 14 27
48.1% 51.9% 100.0%
Total 54 126 180
30.0% 70.0% 100.0%
N Chil * Age mar Crosstabulation

MAIN FINDINGS
• A large number of the respondents i.e. 75.0 percent male members were 1-2 economically active.
• A large number of the respondents i.e. 79.4 percent had 1-4 alive children.
• A very small number of the respondents i.e. 8.3 percent had died children which were 1-2.
• Majority of the respondents i.e. 70.6 percent were not facing any problem during reproductive life.
• A large number of respondents i.e. 71.7 percents were not using any form of contraception.
• A large number of respondents i.e. 67.2 percents were not currently using any form of contraception.
• A large number of the respondents i.e. 66.7 percents were middle. Education play important role. Education creates awareness.
• A large number of respondents i.e. 66.5 percents were married at the age of 14-23. Early age marriages also creates number of problems.

SUGGESTIONS:
The present study has clearly emphasized the importance of education in one's life and in the attitude formation of an individual towards fertility and family size. In order to make the family planning program a success/ the government has to put more effective measures for promoting family planning program in the country. More family planning motivational cum health center should be established in urban areas where the provision of cheaper and more effective contraceptives should be ensured. Enhancing age at marriage should also be included in agenda of population strategies for achieving reduced population growth. The family program should be brought to the door steps of those who need the services. We have very conservative society and many couples are shy to visit clinics. Therefore/ they should be approached privately. Late marriage should be encouraged.

LITERATURE CITED:
Ahmad, I. 2004. "Pakistan Voluntary Health and Nutrition Association (PVHNA).
Akmam W, 2002. Women's Education and Fertility Rates in Developing Countries, With Special Reference to Bangladesh - EJAIB 138-143. Lecturer in Sociology, University of Rajshahi/ Bangladesh;
Amin, S., A.M. Basu, and R. Stephenson, 2002. "Sapatial variation in contraceptive use in Bangladesh: Looking beyond the borders". Demography 39(2): 251-267.
Anonymous, S.2005. “Economics and financing of reproductive health” http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/economics/contact.en. html
Juarez, F. 2004. “Health service utilization and its determinants prenatal care in Ecuador' Poverty, Fertility and Family Planning Ed: CICRED Paris.
Khan, A. 2003. Adolescent and youth reproductive health in Pakistan. Status/issues/ polices and programs. Population Council of Pakistan.
Mir, A. 2003, "Provision of Reproductive Health Services in Pakistan". Population Association of Pakistan/ Islamabad
Mussarat, R. 2003. Community Medicine. Pakistan Institute of Development, Islamabad. Nachmias, C. 1992 'Research Methods in the social sciences published by Edwards Arnold. A Division of Hodder & Stoughton/ London.
RanJani. K. 2005. Health sector reforms and sexual reproductive health services. Lessons and Research Gaps Emerging from the Initiative for Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Health Reforms.
Rashida, G, 2003, Unwanted pregnancies and post abortion complications in Pakistan/ report from health care professionals and health facilities. Research Report No 20.

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