pH Levels Differences Between Normal Urine and Diabetic Urine - Human Anatomy Paper


pH Levels Differences Between Normal Urine and Diabetic Urine - Human Anatomy Paper
Kidneys are bean-shaped organs that lie along the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity (Couch and Burger 2004). The two bean-shaped organs are located in the centers of the

excretory system where blood and numerous of types fluid can pass through. A person can survive with only one functioning kidney, but if both kidneys fail, the buildup of toxic wastes and the lack of regulation of

blood pressure, pH, and ion concentrations will lead to death if untreated (Campbell et all. 2006). Three experiments were taken with the specific organ, all with different procedures and substances. Experiment two was a dialysis test showing positive and negative reactions for specific substances. Hypothesis for Experiment 2 is stated that substances Albumin and Glucose will be positive reactions, Starch and Sodium chloride will be negative reactions. In Experiment three the involvement of “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine” are mixed wit different substances. Hypothesis for Experiment three is the pH would be between 1 and 5 for both “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine”, the glucose would be at highest of 100 for both urines, and ketones will be negative reactions for both urines. The first Experiment was the control experiment, the procedures are, One: Fold a piece of filter paper in half, then in half again, and open it to form a cone (Couch and Burger 2004). The filter paper will allow any substance with a molecular weight less than 100 to pass through (Couch and Burger 2004). Two: Place the cone into the funnel and place the funnel over a beaker or Erlenmeyer flask (Couch and Burger 2004). Three: Shake a solution containing a few particles of charcoal (black), copper sulfate (blue), and starch (white) in water, and pour it into the funnel until the mixture nearly reaches the rim of the filter paper (Couch and Burger 2004). Four: Count the number of drops passing through the funnel during the time intervals, and record your results (Couch and Burger 2004). Five: Observe which substances passed through the filter by noting the color of the filtrate (Couch and Burger 2004). To determine if starch passed through the filter, add a few drops of iodine to the filtrate in the beaker or flask (Couch and Burger 2004). A blue-black color indicates the presence of starch (Couch and Burger 2004). Six: Observe the color of the filter paper to determine which substances did not pass through (Couch and Burger 2004).

Experiment two was a dialysis test, procedures are the following, One: Tie off one end of a piece of dialysis tubing that has been soaking in distilled water (Couch and Burger 2004). Be careful not to handle the tubing any more than necessary, and only hold it by the ends (Couch and Burger 2004). Two: Place a prepared solution containing starch, sodium chloride (salt), 5% glucose, and albumin into the bag (Couch and Burger 2004). Three: Tie off the other end of the bag, check for leaks by gently squeezing the bag, then rinse it with distilled water. Immerse the bag into a beaker of distilled water (Couch and Burger 2004). Four: After one hour, test the solution in the beaker for the substances that were put into the dialysis tubing bag and record your results; A. Albumin – put 2 ml of the solution from the beaker into a test tube (Couch and Burger 2004).Add 3 drops of Biuret reagent (Couch and Burger 2004).A positive test is a color change from blue to violet (Couch and Burger 2004). B. Glucose – put 3 ml of the beaker solution and 3 ml of Benedict’s reagent into a test tube (Couch and Burger 2004). Heat in a water bath for about 2-3 minutes (Couch and Burger 2004). A positive test is a change in color from clear blue to cloudy green or yellow-orange (Couch and Burger 2004). C. Starch – put 2 ml of the beaker solution into a test tube and add 4-5 drops of IKI (iodine) solution (Couch and Burger 2004). A positive test is a blue-black color change (Couch and Burger 2004) D. Sodium chloride – put 2 ml of the beaker solution into a test tube and add several drops of 1% silver nitrate (Couch and Burger 2004). A positive test is the formation of a white precipitate (Couch and Burger 2004).Last experiment procedures involve Urine, the procedures are as follows; One: obtain a reagent strip and determine the location of the specific reactions on the strip (Couch and Burger 2004). Examine the chart on the container that indicates the respective color changes (Couch and Burger 2004). Two: Pour some of the “Diabetic Urine” into a test tube, making sure that you have enough to completely immerse all of the reagent squares on the strip (Couch and Burger 2004). Dip the strip into the “urine” and drain it on a paper towel to remove excess solution (Couch and Burger 2004). Three: Read results according to the chart on the container and RECORD your results (Couch and Burger 2004). Six: Repeat this test for “Normal Urine” (Couch and Burger 2004).

Results - In Experiment 1, which was the control substance results concluded that at a time of ten seconds the volume of water was 30 drops, substrate in filtrate was starch and substance left in filter was charcoal. At a time of 30 seconds the volume of water was 50 drops, substance in filtrate was starch and copper-sulfate, and the substance left in the filter was charcoal. In 60 seconds time, the volume of water was at 76 drops, substance in filtrate was again starch and copper-sulfate, and the substance left in the filter was charcoal. Last with a time of 120 seconds, volume of water was left at 76 drops, substance in filtrate was again starch and copper-sulfate, and the substance left in the filter was charcoal, all of which is shown on table one
In Experiment 2 involving dialysis the results for substances Albumin was a positive reaction, Glucose is a negative reaction, Starch is a negative reaction, and last Sodium chloride is a positive reaction. All these results involving dialysis can be seen in Table 2. Experiment 3 results represent urine tests. For results involving pH as a substance, in “Normal Urine” the pH is 7, in “Diabetic Urine” pH is 5. With a substance of glucose “Normal Urine” is 150, and “Diabetic Urine” is 500. Last with a substance of Ketone, “Normal Urine” is a negative reaction, and “Diabetic Urine” is a negative reaction, all of which can be seen on Table3.

Discussion - As results were concluded it was clear that Experiment 2 hypothesis stating that substances Albumin and Glucose will be positive reactions and Starch and Sodium chloride will be negative solutions was incorrect in some aspects and in Experiment 3 hypothesis stating the pH would be between 1 and 5 for both “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine”, the glucose would be at highest of 100 for both urines, and ketones will be negative reactions for both urines was incorrect. While testing on dialysis in experiment 2 and shown in table 2, as results were posted clearly stated that Albumin and Sodium Chloride were the two substances my hypothesis did not support. What dialysis does for the kidneys is acts like a lifesaver not only for people that have both kidneys failing, but also non-exercisers, the people that have no guide to a healthy life. Furnishing dialysis in the United States to large numbers of patients already in poor health and with limited life expectancies has contributed to the highest yearly mortality rate for dialysis patients in the developed world—approximately 24% in 1988 (Hines et al. 1997). For these reasons it is important to know what this does for your kidneys. This also helps me understand why the hypothesis was incorrect by stating that Albumin was a positive reaction and Sodium chloride is a negative reaction. Possible errors that could have occurred in the final result of these two substances that were incorrect may have been improper washing of beaker, also not enough of Albumin and Sodium chloride in the dialysis tubing.

Experiment 1 was obvious what the results were going to be when testing charcoal with starch and copper sulfate in our control experiment. No errors were recorded for experiment 1, also results supported hypothesis in stating that charcoal would have been the only substance not allowed to filter through because of more particles and a higher concentration. Involving “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine” in Experiment 3 it is said that” Diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease, affects 20 to 30 percent of patients with diabetes (Thorp and Micah 2005). While testing both “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine”, glucose in the “Diabetic Urine” and the ph in “Normal Urine” are what my hypothesis did not support. Stating in the hypothesis about glucose being a high of a 100 for both “Normal Urine” and “Diabetic Urine” is something I do not support now that I have done further research on diabetics. There are no potential errors for the result outcome for Experiment 3.

Concluding all results and hypothesis stated, Experiment 2 and 3 are definite factors people of any age should be aware of. For diabetic patients, Experiments 2 and 3 should hit really close to home with their lives, and these substances that they see every day. Diabetic nephropathy presents in its earliest stage with low levels of albumin (microalbuminuria) in the urine (Thorp and Micah 2005). Stating this alone is reason enough for all non diabetics and diabetics of all types to be on the look out for any new experiments.

Tags
Related Essays Anatomy