Management Research Project Symantec Corporation


Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.1 Background
Symantec Corporation, founded in 1982, is the world’s 4th largest independent software companies with operations in more than 40 countries and more than 18,000 employees. Joining Fortune 500 in 2008 and ranked 461, Symantec is headquartered in Cupertino, California, USA. Serving 99% of companies listed in Fortune 100 and 50 million active consumers worldwide, Symantec is a global leader in providing software and services that protect, manage and control information risks related to security, data protection, storage, compliance and system management.
There have been talks from employees over lunch about having little motivation and the company has noticed lower productivity of late. Every organisation wants to be successful and stay competitive within their respective industries. And to do that, organisations need to maximise their employees’ actual and potential capabilities through initiatives that can keep them motivated as well as to keep them happy. Motivating employees has always been a very difficult topic because each individual is motivated differently. However, there are many conclusive researches indicating a strong relationship between happy employees and productivity (Regina, 2009). Designing the right job for employees may be able to get employees more motivated to improve performance and productivity.
The correlation of job satisfaction and job performance is intensively studied by many researchers in the past. And all the studies (Yoav, 1998; Jose, 2007; Daniel, 2000) till date have come not to many but one conclusion that job satisfaction is indeed a very important variable to improved job performance (Spector, 1997) because it affects the incumbent’s capacity to perform.
It is experienced that when the three variables of performance, motivation and satisfaction are well-balanced within the employees’ work environments, there will be a positive impact on the productivity of the employees. Organisations cannot reach competitive levels of quality, either at a product level or a customer service level, if the employees do not feel satisfied or do not identify with the company (Steward, 1996). Therefore, motivated and committed employees can be a determining factor in the success of an organisation.
In this study, it is proposed that these three factors would make up the rudder that steer the direction of the organisation just like how it would for the boat. An organisation that is able to design the work environment that successfully manipulate these three variables to their advantage will be able to increase overall organisational productivity. This research will focus on how the organisational working environment, has an impact on employees’ job performance, motivation and satisfaction which will be reviewed in this study. Although, there are many organisational working environment factors, this research will focus on supervisor and supportive peers’ relationship, political and conflicts and career expectations.

1.2 Scope of Research
The scope of this study is to understand how the Symantec’s working environment affects the employees and how productivity may be increased. Investigations will be conducted on each of the three different variables - job performance (Chapter 5, pg 84 of txt), motivation (Chapter 5, pg 74 of txt) and satisfaction (Chapter 2, pg 22 of txt) to gain further understanding on employees’ reactions and attitudes towards their working environments. This will definitely help Symantec gain better insight of what is required from their superiors and what directives to be improved on or implemented so as to enhance the quality of job performance, motivation and satisfaction. An in-depth study will be conducted to explore employees’ views on these three variables.
1.3 Objectives of Research
The objectives of the research are :
a) To investigate if the presence of supportive peers will lead to a higher job satisfaction level
b) To examine if an effective supervisor will lead to better job performance.
c) To determine if high conflict and political work environment really increases job motivation.
d) To study if there is a positive impact on employees’ satisfaction when career expectations are met.
e) To test if challenging work positively increases job motivation.
1.4 Organisation of Research
The study will be divided into six chapters.
Chapter 1 is the introductory chapter of this current study. A brief overview of the company and the variables that will affect it will be given. The study scope and objectives of this study will also be discussed.
A series of research papers and journal articles that are relevant to this study will be reviewed in Chapter 2 to help grasp a better understanding of the study matter. It will provide the fundamental background for this research.
Chapter 3 sets out the formulation of the hypotheses in this research. Based on these hypotheses, survey questionnaires will be formulated and distributed to the respondents working for the various industries for data collection purposes.
The research methodology for this study will be outlined in Chapter 4. It will give a brief explanation of how the information is collected to and at the same time ensure that there will a high level of reliability and validity.
Chapter 5 will present the analyses and findings of the survey results. The result will be tabulated and presented according to the sequence of hypotheses formulated in the earlier chapter.
This study will be concluded in Chapter 6. And the limitations and areas for future research will also be discussed.
Chapter 2 – Literature Reviews
2.1 Introduction
The objective of this chapter is to review journal articles in order to gain a better insight and have a strong fundamental background on the subject matter. The topic on work environment is very wide and there has been numerous studies undertaken to measure the variables or factors that will affect work environment.
This chapter will present summaries of previous research studies conducted in the different areas of concern in many industries that has been in the interest of professionals and academics which are curious to find the link between the variables that will alter work environment. The reviewing of journals by previous author is important as it could assist in the having an understanding of how they formulate hypotheses and carry out further empirical investigation in the present study.
The reviews have been segmented into 3 broad segments. They are:
1. Job Satisfaction
2. Job Motivation
3. Job Performance
With the above segments, researchers will be able to derive an in-depth overview of comprehending the subject matter.

2.2 Job Satisfaction
2.2.1 Introduction
Job satisfaction came to be the work-behaviour of choice for many researchers interested in studying the relationship between attitudes and efficiency in the working environment. Job satisfaction by far is the most frequently studied variable in the organisational research. Various studies were carried out to test the relation of job satisfaction in aspect in the environment both internal and external.
Charlie O. Trevor (2001) had demonstrated “Interactions among actual ease-of-movement determinants and job satisfaction in the prediction of voluntary turnover.” The methodology used longitudinal data which were analyzed via time dependent convaries and repeated turnover events with a sample size of 5506. The results showed that job satisfaction matters more for turnover when there is greater opportunity to move. Job satisfaction negative effect on turnover was greater when each of the three indicators of movement capital was high. Limitation is to think that it is self-serving to think of oneself as voluntarily leaving the job when dissatisfied and, consequently, job satisfaction and voluntary turnover could arguably co-vary in part because both measures were taken from NLSY survey instrument.
Gilbert A. Churchill Jr., Neil M. Ford and Orville C. Walker, Jr. (1976) undertook a research “Organisation Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Salesforce” concluded that organisational climate is an important determinant of salesforce morale. The methodology approach were through primary data collected through mailed questionnaires from a sample of 479 industrial salesmen drawn from 10 companies in 7 industries. Analysis shows job satisfaction improves when their performance is being directed and monitored closely by their superiors. And as the quality of interpersonal contact improves i.e. receiving support from superiors and co-workers when they meet non-routine challenges and helping him understand what were the expected jobscope, so will their job satisfaction. A salesman is happier when he perceives himself as an active participant in determining the company directives that affect him.
2.2.2 Overview of Job Satisfaction.
As a person values, attitudes and beliefs change over the years, job satisfaction can be affected. Moreover, adverse working environment can substantially decreases job satisfaction as well. The research supports that there is a correlation between employees’ low-level job satisfaction and high absenteeism rates. The organisation may improve the satisfaction level via meeting the aspirations, needs and expectations of the employees. Satisfied employees may in return be more committed and productive to the organisation in a long run.

2.3 Job motivation
2.3.1 Introduction
Job motivation is considered to be one of the most important factors in driving an individual towards a goal or accomplishments. It is proposed that a well-define job will enhance motivation of an employee, thus making it very important to reduce all other factors that may alter the motivation level of an individual in any environment.
Jacob K. Eskilden, Kai Kristensen and Ander H. Westlund (2003) studies Work motivation and Job satisfaction in the Nordic countries. The methodology approach took a survey with a sample size of 9623 employees in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The results show that job satisfaction can almost replicate in internal work motivation. This indicate that job satisfaction and internal work motivation is highly related to one another. An interesting aspect is that although the employees with a high education are less satisfied, they are more motivated. It might be that the highly educated have more diversified and challenging tasks that can motivate them despite their lower level of satisfaction.
J. Daniel Couger (1986) in his research Effect of cultural differences on motivational of analysts and programmers: Singapore vs. The United States. The methodology was through survey of Singapore computer professionals with a sample size of 1179. The findings shows that five job characteristics which comprise the job motivating potential score are: skill variety task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback from the job. Singapore Analyst and programmers in contrast to U.S counterparts perceived their job to be deficient in key job characteristics, thus there is a huge potential improvement for motivation for the individuals in Singapore.
2.3.2 Overview for Job Motivation
The literature show that in the last decade of studies, motivation can be improved through empowerment and autonomy in the organisation. There are six main motivating factors in any organisation; high wages, good working conditions, promotion, job security, interesting work and appreciation of work done. Intrinsic motivation has a stronger influence than extrinsic motivation on organisational climate variables.

2.4 Job Performance
2.4.1 Introduction
It is experienced that well design jobs can have a positive impact on the job performance of an employee. The possibility that job performance can cause a vast difference in the outcome of any organisation which makes more researchers looked into the variables affecting job performance.
Ryan D. Zimmerman and Todd C. Darnold (2009) had the purpose to estimate the impact of job performance on employee turnover intentions and the voluntary turnover process. The methodology was data form 65 studies meta-analyzed to estimate the performance-intention to quit (ITQ) relationship. The results observed supervisor ratings of performance had the strongest relationship to ITQ, followed by self ratings and objective measures. Poor performers are more likely to quit even after controlling for job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Job performance affects turnover intentions and behaviours both directly and in-directly. The fact that the performance-turnover relationship was not fully mediated by job satisfaction and ITQ, poor performers are more likely to engage in unplanned or impulsive quitting.
Charles M. Futrell, John E. Swan and John T. Todd (1976) investigated Job performance related to management control system for pharmaceutical salesman. The methodology uses quantitative surveys in two national pharmaceutical firms from salesman to supervisors with a sample size of 431. The results indicate that the three control system constructs of goal clarity, performance-rewards relationship and influence and control were all significantly related to performance. The performance construct could be represented by the two Variables of “work hard” and “attitude”. The performance-rewards relationship was shown to have the strongest association with performance.
Desmond Yuen (2007) aim to investigate, the antecedents of budgetary participation: enhancing employees’ job performance. The methodology is data collected through a quantitative survey with the sample size of 216 managers. The results show positive association between a need for achievement/work attitudes and job performance. A need for achievement and a positive work attitude are significant antecedents to budgetary participation which, in turn, positively influence job performance. The study suggests that the job performance of employees can be enhanced by encouraging participation in budgetary activities. The participants volunteered to participate in this study and thus sample was not random which makes it a limitation for this research.
2.4.2 Overview for Job Performance
In this segment of the study shows that Job Performance does affect turnover intentions and behaviour in every organisation. Employees who perceived as having a favourable chance of getting a promotion would have a higher job performance. A need for performance and a positive work attitude positively influences job performance. To know that Goal clarity, performance-rewards relationship, and influence and control all are significantly related to performance will be the key to keep employees in peak performance.

2.5 Summary of Literature Review
From the Literature Reviews of paragraph 2.2 to 2.4 illustrated that employee’ attitudes, values and beliefs do add to one’s job satisfaction. It would decrease the chances of employees being absent from the workplace and at the same time improve the productivity of the organisation. Having the right motivating force for the employees is getting more autonomy and empowerment that they may feel a sense of responsibility in the working environment resulting in longer commitments and loyalty to the organisation. Rafikul Islam and Ahmad Zaki Hj. Ismail (2006) found six main factors that will increase motivation in any organisation which are good working conditions, high wages, job security, promotion, interesting work and lastly being appreciated for their contributions in the workplace. Only by knowing how to satisfy and motivate employees, will the organisation be able to benefit from the performance of the individuals as they will feel compelled to put in more effort for the advancement for the company and also themselves. Positive mindset towards work is definitely the way for an employee to perform in their working environment. The three segments of job satisfaction, motivation and performance although are different in their areas of results, there is a strong correlations between the three segment of how it affects and influence on another.
The above literature reviews have given an in-depth insight on the environmental factors that affect job satisfaction, motivation and performance. With this understanding, the research is able to develop the appropriate hypotheses to meet the research objectives. The development of hypotheses is elaborated in the next chapter.
Chapter 3 Formulation of Hypotheses
3.1 Introduction
The main aim of this research is to investigate how work environment has an impact on employee’s job satisfaction, motivation and performance. This is important as we know that even in our own daily workplace, motivation and having a sense of satisfaction at work do affect performance and vice versa. In this chapter, hypotheses are developed based on the relationship among work environment and job satisfaction, work environment and job motivation, and lastly work environment and job performance.
3.2 Hypothesis 1
Charlie O. Trevor (2001) in his research about job satisfaction and its effect on voluntary turnover in the organisation had shown that there is a correlation between the two variables. To understand how we can reduce voluntary turnover is to know how much does the employee interact in the workplace and how much job satisfaction they have in the job. Having a pleasant work environment is more likely to make employees feel a sense of belonging and satisfied coming to the work place. Hence, the following hypothesis states that:
H1: Supportive peers will lead to higher job satisfaction.
3.3 Hypothesis 2
The findings through research of Clifford P. McCue and Gerasimos A. Gianakis (1997) research objectives were the relationship between job satisfaction and performance has supported the facts that better job performance will lead to job satisfaction in the organisation. The feeling that it has to be true in every aspect, has to be tested to validate itself of how people react to between performance and satisfaction. With this, the hypothesis is:
H2: An effective leader leads to higher employees’ performance.
3.4 Hypothesis 3
In many research studies, motivation is the key attribute for an employee to possess if they would like the organisation to advance in increasing efficiency and efficacy in the way things are done. The workplace must be pleasant and appealing to the employees making them feel motivated all the time that will indirectly increase performance within the organisation. The following hypothesis will look into this:
H3: High conflict and political work environment increases my motivation level.
3.5 Hypothesis 4
Meeting career expectations of the employees may in return have an impact on the employees’ satisfaction level. As contend by Thomas Lange (2008) and Kenneth Teas (1983) shows that jobs satisfaction does in return contribute to the positive aspects of an individuals in their careers. To study on this, a hypothesis is formulated.
H4: There is a positive impact on employees’ satisfaction when career expectations
are met.

3.6 Hypothesis 5
Jacob K. Eskilden, Kai Kristensen and Ander H. Westlund (2003) in their study showed that challenging task may motivate an individual despite having lower satisfaction level. In this fast moving environment and fast changing economy, will individuals still be motivated with more challenging work? Hence the hypothesis:
H5: Challenging work positively increases Job motivation.

Chapter 4 – Research Methodology
4.1 Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the methodology employed in this study. It will give a brief explanation of how the information is collected and at the same time ensure that the study has a high level of reliability and validity. Respondents will participate in this research to help to the analysis of the study.
Figure 4.1 Research Methodology Process

Source : Blaikie (2003) Analyzing quantitative data: from description to explanation.

4.2 Importance of Research Methodology
Asker, Kumar, Day and Lawley (2005) stresses that the importance of having a research methodology because it serves to guide the direction of the research towards fulfilling its objectives. It enables better control of the study, data collection and raw data interpretation and analysis.
Research methodology is thus the thread that strings all the elements of the study systematically to achieve the research objectives.
4.2.1 Primary Data
According to Bruce (2007), “primary data are data not available in a secondary form that must be collected to address the specific needs of the research”. Allen (1999) also pointed out in his study that primary data collection is crucial when secondary data sources are not available.
Questionnaire surveys are the source of primary data in this research. Data collection is standardised so that analysis and comparison can be made easier. Most of the questionnaires were distributed directly to working adults. Using this direct approach is advantageous because any doubts can be clarified immediately and responses can be gathered on-the-spot. But the downside to using the direct approach is that respondents have limited time to think through their answers when completing the questionnaires.

4.2.2 Secondary Data
Bruce (2007) stated that “secondary data are data gathered for some purpose other than the project at hand”. Though secondary data are readily available, caution must be exercised when interpreting the contents as they may not up-to-date or from incredible sources. Thus, primary research should be carried out to obtain more current information.
Secondary data for this study was sourced from avenues such as journal, articles, books and the internet which main focuses on job satisfaction, motivation and performance which are to be explored in this study.
4.3 Research Design
The random sampling design is used because the data was collected over certain time-periods.
The questionnaire survey approach was adopted for data collection primarily because a large of sample can be collected over the shortest time frame. This approach also facilitates ease of recording and processing of survey results
The questionnaire surveys will be distributed to working adults across Symantec to acquire a meaningful representation of the whole population. Different data collection methods were used ensure reliable estimates: electronic mails, face to face interviews, telephone interviews.
This study utilises data gathered from working adults from Symantec and the sample size is targeted at 500 respondents. To increase the accuracy of the response, each survey was distributed with a verbal guarantee of anonymity.
4.4 Development of Questionnaires
To achieve the objectives of this research as stated in paragraph 1.3 on Page 3, a set of questionnaires consisting of 24 questions were developed and modified to test the hypotheses as formulated in Chapter 3.
Questions 1 to 5 are formulated to test Hypothesis 1. The questions examine the responses of individuals about how they feel about job satisfaction when they have supportive their peers.
To test Hypothesis 2, questions 6 to 9 are formulated to investigate whether effective supervisors are able to affect the employees’ performance.
For testing Hypothesis 3, questions 10 to 14 seek to evaluate the relationship of between conflicting and political working environment and employees’ motivation levels.
Hypothesis 4 is tested against questions from 15 to 19 which are formulated to test if there will be any positive impact on job satisfaction when career expectations are met.
Questions 20 to 24 are formulated to test for Hypothesis 5. The questions aid in the examination of whether challenging work produces more job motivation for employees.
The demographic characteristics of the sample population can be identified through questions 25 to 31.
4.5 Measurement
Questions 1 to 24 use a 4-point response Likert scale to eliminate central tendency biasness and to ease date collection and tabulation. The respondents will be required to express the extent of their agreement or disagreement from (1) “strongly agree” to (4) “strongly disagree” with regards to a series of statements.
Questions 25 to 31 are closed-ended questions. Such structure allows effective probing to the specific item and reduces the presence of free-response data which may complicate statistical interpretation and analysis.
4.6 Pilot study
Prior in conducting the actual survey, a pilot study was carried out with a research supervisor to help rectify the content of the survey according to Saunders, Lewis and Thronhill (2003). This pilot study helps in identifying the problems from the start and consistent feedbacks were given to polish up on the questionnaire structure. Many changes were made to the questionnaires and then given to a small group of 10 individuals to see if they could understand the instructions and content of the survey in the pilot test.
4.7 Data Collection
The data is collected over a period of two weeks with a dateline on 10th November 2009 and responses received within this timeframe will be used in this study. Most of the questionnaires were distributed during lunch hour and also after-office hours. Whenever possible, the respondents were encouraged to complete the survey on-the-spot to minimise data loss i.e. failing to return the survey forms.
4.8 Computation of Data
The data for the study is computed using the Microsoft Office Excel application.
Hypothesis testing taken from questions 1 to 24 are tabulated using the following criteria :
• Strongly agree – 1
• Agree – 2
• Disagree – 3
• Strongly disagree – 4
The mean score of each question and each hypothesis will be calculated
While demographic attributes taken from questions 25 to 30 are tabulated using the following criteria :
• Gender – (1) male and (2) female
• Age Group – (1) under 20, (2) between 20 to 30, (3) between 31 to 40, (4)
between 41 to 50, (5) between 51 to 60 and (6) 61and above;
• Profession – (1) student, (2) executive, (3) technician, (4) manager, (5)
administration and (6) self-employed;
• Income Level – (1) less than S$1000, (2) between S$1001 to S$2000,
(3) between S$2001 to S$3000, (4) between S$3000 to
S$4000, (5) between S$4001 to S$5000 and (6) S$5000 and
above;
• Educational Level – (1) PSLE, (2) ‘O’ level, (3) ‘A’ level, (4)
diploma/advanced diploma, (5) degree and
(6) masters/PhD;
• Nationality – (1) Singaporean, (2) Singapore permanent residents and
(3) Others.
4.9 Conclusion
The survey questionnaires were designed for data collection to achieve the objectives of this study. A sample size of 500 questionnaires was used to represent the population in the research to ensure reliability, accuracy and validity. Data collected from various departments and from employees holding different designations were then computed using the Microsoft Office Excel application which will be presented in the next chapter.

Chapter 5 Findings and Analysis
5.1 Introduction
This chapter shows the analysis and findings of the survey results done. This chapter is important as it will validate whether the hypotheses formulated in Chapter 3 are true to its claims.
Paragraph 5.3 will cover the demographic profile of the respondents while the analyses and finding will be presented in Paragraphs 5.4 to 5.8. The survey results will be reported after each test and a summary of the hypotheses will be provided in Paragraph 5.9.
5.2 Data Collection and Research Responses
A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed to various individuals from Symantec. The final sample size consists of 433 responses. A total of 23 responses were rejected due to error or incompletion of the questionnaires. Hence, a total number of 410 valid responses were used to tabulate the findings effectively making a response rate of 82.0%.
5.3 Demography
Survey questions 25 to 30 are designed in such a way as to give an overview of the demographic profile of the sample population which serves to provide an important insight of the entire company’s demography. All findings will be translated into graphs and charts to enable ease of referencing.
5.3.1 Gender
Chart 5.1

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.1, the response rates for male and female are almost similar at 51.46% and 48.54% respectively. This is indicates that the workforce in Symantec are quite evenly distributed and also suggests that both genders enjoy equal employment opportunities with little or no gender discrimination.

5.3.2 Age Group
Chart 5.2

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.2, the data shows that a significant portion of the respondents falls under the age groups 21-30 and 31-40 at 49.76% and 30.98% respectively. This indicates that young and middle-aged working adults make up the majority of Symantec’s workforce. Making up 11.22% and 5.12% of the sample population are older workers from the age groups 41-50 and 51-60 respectively. There indicates that there is also a substantial percentage of older workers within Symantec’s workforce suggesting that the policy of employing older workers is rather effective.

5.3.3 Profession
Chart 5.3

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.3, the majority of the sample population is made up of executives at 52.20% followed by administration staffs at 17.80%. Managerial and technical staffs made up another 16.83% and 13.17% respectively. This is representative that majority of Symantec’s employees hold middle to high level positions within the organisations.

5.3.4 Current Income Level
Chart 5.4

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.4, the data reveals the earning capabilities of the respondents. Most of the respondents are earning a comfortable monthly income range of above S$2000, with the bulk of 37.80% earning between S$3001 – S$4000.

5.3.5 Education Level
Chart 5.5

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.5, the data shows that the majority of the respondents have completed tertiary education – 18.05%, 57.80% and 3.66% having completed their Diploma/Advanced Diploma, Degree and Masters/PhD respectively. This presents an accurate picture of Symantec’s current workforce which has high literacy rates.

5.3.6 Nationality
Chart 5.6

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.6, the data indicates that the vast majority of the respondents are mainly made up of locals.

5.3.7 Summary of Demographic Profile
The findings from paragraphs 5.3.1 to 5.3.6 enable the researcher to draw inferences about the demography of the company’s workforce based on the analysis of the sample population of 410 respondents. To summarise, Symantec offers unbiased employment opportunities to its employees, comprising mainly of locals who are highly educated and mainly from the age group 21 to 40. Most of the population holds middle to high level posts in the organisation and drawing high income. This sample demography is adequate for the study to achieve its research objectives.

5.4 Survey Findings – Hypothesis 1
H1 : Supportive peers will lead to higher job satisfaction.
5.4.1 Question 1 : I am satisfied when my peers understand my work related
problems.
Chart 5.7

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.7 shows that 10.24% and 82.68% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 6.83% and 0.24% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 1.97 (refer to Appendix 1), indicating that most respondents is in agreement to the above question. This attest the fact that job satisfaction is highly influenced by peers’ understanding work related problems.
5.4.2 Question 2 : Frequent communication with my peers increases my job
satisfaction.
Chart 5.8

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.8 register that 25.61% and 60.73% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 12.20% and 1.46% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 1.90 (refer to Appendix 1) suggesting that a significant number of the respondent is in agreement with the above question. This confirms that that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and the frequency of peer-to-peer communication.

5.4.3 Question 3 : When my peers show me respect, I am satisfied.
Chart 5.9

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.9 reveals that 45.85% and 44.63% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 5.12% and 4.39% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 1.68 (refer to Appendix 1) which indicates high agreement rates from the respondents. Thus pointing out that job satisfaction is depends on the levels of respect for they receive from their peers in Symantec.

5.4.4 Question 4 : Without my supportive peers, I am not satisfied
even if the job is done well.
Chart 5.10

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.10 shows that 16.10% and 44.39% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 23.90% and 15.61% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.39 (refer to Appendix 1) pointing out the fact that most respondents agree to the above question. This emphasizes that most individuals believe that supportive peers will enhance their job satisfaction levels.

5.4.5 Question 5 : When my manager avoids conflict in my department, it
decreases my motivation level.
Chart 5.11

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.11 reveals that 10.00% and 48.05% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 22.93% and 19.02% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.51 (refer to Appendix 1) suggesting that in general, most individuals believe that when their manager do not avoid conflicts, they will be more motivated and hence increase their job satisfaction levels.

5.4.6 Summary of Findings for Hypothesis 1
H1 : Supportive peers will lead to higher job satisfaction.
For Hypothesis 1, the mean score is 2.09 (refer to Appendix 1) indicating that most respondents agree that supportive peers will lead to higher job satisfaction which strongly support the claims of Hypothesis 1.
The findings in paragraphs 5.4.1 to 5.4.5 further support the hypothesis. 92.92% of the respondents feel that they will be satisfied when their peers understand their work related problem because 86.34% and 90.48% of the respondents noted an increase in their job satisfaction levels when there is frequent communication between peers as well as when their peers show them respect respectively. Moreover, 60.49% of the respondents feel that without supportive peers, they will not be satisfied even when the job is well done. 58.05% of the respondents feel that their motivational levels will fall when the manager avoid conflicts. Hence, there is a positive correlation between higher job satisfaction levels and supportive peers.

5.5 Survey Findings – Hypothesis 2
H2 : An effective supervisor leads to higher performance.
5.5.1 Question 6 : My supervisor influences my job performance.
Chart 5.12

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.12, the data indicates that 13.66% and 59.27% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 20.24% and 6.83% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.20 (refer to Appendix 1) suggesting that a significant portion of respondents agree to the above question. This implies that supervisor does have a certain level of influence over individuals’ job performance.
5.5.2 Question 7 : Without my supervisor, I am not able to perform.
Chart 5.13

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.13, the data shows that 9.02% and 24.63% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 49.76% and 16.59% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.74 (refer to Appendix 1) indicating that a substantial number of respondents disagree to the above question. The high disagreement rate has pointed out that supervisors’ presence is not really necessary to bring about better job performance.

5.5.3 Question 8 : My job performance increases when I work for an effective
supervisor.
Chart 5.14

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.14, the data reveals that 26.10% and 42.44% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 24.88% and 6.59% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.12 (refer to Appendix 1) which implies that the majority of the respondents agree to the above question. This is indicative that better job performance can be accredited to an effective supervisor.

5.5.4 Question 9 : I need encouragement by my supervisor to improve my job
performance.
Chart 5.15

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.15, the data register that 11.46% and 63.90% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 20.49% and 4.15% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.17 (refer to Appendix 1) reflecting that a significant number of respondents believe that with their supervisors’ encouragements, their job performance will improve significantly.

5.5.5 Summary of Findings for Hypothesis 2
H2 : An effective supervisor leads to higher performance.
For Hypothesis 2, the mean score is 2.31 (refer to Appendix 1) which is indicative that most respondents agree that an effective supervisor leads to higher performance. From the analysis, Hypothesis 2 is well supported.
The findings in paragraphs 5.5.1 to 5.5.4 further support the hypothesis. 72.93% of the respondents agree that their supervisor influence their job performance as 68.54% of the respondents felt that their job performance will increase when they work with an effective supervisor and 75.36% of the respondents’ feedback that they need the encouragement of their supervisor to improve their job performance. However, only 33.65% of the respondents agree that they will not be able to perform without their supervisor. Hence, there is a positive correlation between higher job performance levels and having an effective supervisor.

5.6 Survey Findings – Hypothesis 3
H3 : High conflict and political work environment increases my motivation level.
5.6.1 Question 10 : There are a lot of conflicts in the office.
Chart 5.16

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.16, the data reveals that 11.22% and 59.02% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 24.63% and 5.12% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.24 (refer to Appendix 1). This point to the fact that most of the respondents felt that there are a lot of conflicts in their offices.

5.6.2 Question 11 : I will be motivated in a high conflict working environment.
Chart 5.17

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.17, the data indicates that 15.12% and 40.00% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 34.15% and 10.73% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.40 (refer to Appendix 1) reflecting a minor difference between the agreement and disagreement rates. This suggest that there are mixed feelings towards being motivated in an environment with high levels of conflicts, however, there is a slight deviation of 10.24% towards agreeing with being motivated in a high conflict working environment.

5.6.3 Question 12 : I will leave the organisation if there is too much political
behaviour by my peers.
Chart 5.18

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.18, the data register that 10.24% and 35.61% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 39.27% and 14.88% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.64 (refer to Appendix 1) which reflects a minimal difference between the agreement and disagreement rates. This indicates that there are mixed feelings towards leaving an organisation when there are too much political plays between peers. 8.30% more of the respondents tend towards disagreement with the above statement which implies that the decision to leave an organisation will not be significantly influenced by the exhibition of political behaviours by the peers.
5.6.4 Question 13 : The work I am doing motivates me even if there is political
behaviours in my organisation.
Chart 5.19

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.19, the data shows that 18.05% and 57.32% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 15.85% and 8.78% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.20 (refer to Appendix 1) revealing a high agreement rates with the above question. This implies that the nature of the job will motivate the respondents even when they are placed in an environment with a lot of political behaviours.

5.6.5 Question 14 : My motivation is not affected by the environment.
Chart 5.20

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.20, the data reveals that 7.80% and 39.02% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 32.68% and 20.49% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.65 (refer to Appendix 1) reveals an insubstantial difference between the agreement and disagreement rates. This suggests mixed feelings towards the effect of the working environment and the respondents’ motivational level. The difference of 6.35% is deviated towards disagreement which may imply that the working environment can affect the motivational level but has little influence on it.

5.6.6 Summary of findings for Hypothesis 3
H3 : High conflict and political work environment increases my motivation level.
For Hypothesis 3, the mean score is 2.43 (refer to Appendix 1) which is indicative that although quite a fair number of respondents agree that high conflict and political work environment increase their motivation level, there is too much disparity in the responses to provide any concrete findings to prove the correlation. Hence, the hypothesis is not supported.
The findings in Questions 10 to 14 in paragraphs 5.6.1 to 5.6.5 from pages 51 to 55 further elaborates the inaccurate responses which render Hypothesis 3 invalid for any effective inference. 70.24% of the respondents are aware that there are a lot of conflicts in their working environments. Among the respondents, 55.12% agree that they are motivated in a high conflict working environment but then again 45.82% feels that their motivation level is not affected by the environment. There is a clear disparity in their responses – if most respondents feel motivated by a high conflict environment, their motivation level should be affected by the environment as well and yet the actual responses are negatively correlated. Further analysis shows that majority of the respondents are young executives from the age group 21-30 years of age currently holding degrees and earning high income. As they are young, they feel a need to be challenged in a high conflict environment proving their capabilities.
The majority 75.37% of the respondents believed that the nature of the work they are doing will motivate them even though there is political plays in their organisations. And yet 45.85% of respondents will consider leaving the organisation if there is too much political behaviour experienced. Again, there is a huge variance between both responses – if the respondents are motivated by their work and not the environment, the response rates towards leaving the organisation should register at a lesser percentage. Thus, it may be infer that the respondents are trying to give a politically correct answer. The majority of these respondents are also from young executive from the age group 21-30 years of age currently holding degrees and earning high income. They may be impulsive with regards to job changes and constantly looking out for new challenges.
Although there is a very slight positive correlation between high conflict and political work environment and motivational levels, the results do not support Hypothesis 3. Perhaps the questions were structured to caution the respondents to give political responses. However, there is sufficient evidence to show that the nature of the work plays a more important role in influencing the motivational levels.

5.7 Survey Findings – Hypothesis 4
H4 : There is a positive impact on employees’ satisfaction when career expectations
are met.
5.7.1 Question 15 : My employer knows about my career expectations.
Chart 5.21

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.21 register that 12.44% and 51.46% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 22.44% and 13.66% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.37 (refer to Appendix 1) which reflects that most of the respondents noted that their employers are aware of their career expectations.
5.7.2 Question 16 : I am satisfied when my career expectations are met by my
organisation.
Chart 5.22

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.22 shows that 23.66% and 44.63% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 25.37% and 6.34% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.14 (refer to Appendix 1) suggests that majority of the respondents will be satisfied when their career expectations are met by the organisation.

5.7.3 Question 17 : My satisfaction level increases when my employer helps me
achieve my career expectations.
Chart 5.23

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.23 shows that 24.63% and 58.29% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 13.90% and 3.17% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 1.96 (refer to Appendix 1) since a majority of the respondents experience an incremental improvement in their satisfaction levels of when their employers help them to achieve their career expectations.

5.7.4 Question 18 : My motivation level increases when there is low political
behaviour but high level of work conflict within my
department.
Chart 5.24

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.24 indicates that 12.93% and 46.59% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 28.54% and 11.95% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.40 (refer to Appendix 1) as there is a significant portion of the respondents experiencing a surge in their motivational levels when there is low political behaviour but high level of work conflicts within their departments

5.7.5 Question 19 : I feel it is not important to meet my career expectations when
my needs are satisfied by my organisation
Chart 5.25

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
The data from Chart 5.25 registers that 18.05% and 54.88% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 22.93% and 4.15% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.12 (refer to Appendix 1) which point to the fact that a substantial number of the respondents feel that it is not important to meet their career expectations so long as their needs are satisfied by the organisation.

5.7.6 Summary of findings for Hypothesis 4
H4 : There is a positive impact on employees’ satisfaction when career expectations
are met.
For hypothesis 4, the mean score is 2.20 (refer to Appendix 1) indicating that most respondents agrees that there is a positive impact on their satisfaction levels when their career expectations are met.
The findings in paragraphs 5.7.1 to 5.7.5 support the claims of Hypothesis 4. 63.90% of the respondents pointed out that their respective employers are aware of their career expectations and 68.29% of the respondents agree that that they will be satisfied when their career expectations are met by the organisation. Moreover 82.92% of the respondents will experience an increase on satisfaction levels when their employers help them to achieve their career expectations. However, only 59.52% of the respondent felt that their motivational levels will increase when there is low political behaviour but high levels of work conflict within their departments. However, it is important to note that 72.93% of the respondents felt that fulfilling their career expectations can be forgone so long the organisation satisfy their needs.
Hypothesis 4 is well-supported as the analyses find a positive correlation between career expectation fulfilment and satisfaction levels. Nevertheless, fulfilling needs is still more important and there are other factors that will influence satisfaction levels as well.

5.8 Survey Findings – Hypothesis 5
H5 : Challenging work positively increases Job motivation.
5.8.1 Question 20 : The work I am doing is challenging.
Chart 5.26

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.26, the data registers that 10.00% and 72.20% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 12.93% and 4.88% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.13 (refer to Appendix 1) which implies that a majority of the respondents feel that the work they are doing is challenging.

5.8.2 Question 21 : Challenging work is more important to me than monetary
reward that keeps me motivated.
Chart 5.27

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.27, the data indicates that 12.68% and 59.27% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 20.98% and 7.07% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.23 (refer to Appendix 1) which reflects a general sentiment that challenging work is more important to the respondents’ motivational levels than monetary rewards as implied by the high agreement rates.

5.8.3 Question 22 : Increasing in job responsibility increases my motivational
level.
Chart 5.28

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.28, the data shows that 26.59% and 52.68% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 12.68% and 8.05% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.02 (refer to Appendix 1) indicating that a significant portion of the sample population agrees to the fact that when their job responsibilities increase so will their motivational levels.

5.8.4 Question 23 : Challenging work with no pay increase, increases my
motivation level.
Chart 5.29

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.29, the data indicates that 9.51% and 21.22% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 40.98% and 28.29% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.88 (refer to Appendix 1) as there is a high level of disagreement rates to an increment in motivational levels when there is challenging work with no pay increase. This implies that monetary rewards overrule challenging work.

5.8.5 Question 24 : The more challenging work I have, the more motivated I am.
Chart 5.30

Source : Created by Jonathan Tay, 2009
From Chart 5.30, the data register that 22.20% and 59.27% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively while 10.00% and 8.54% of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively with the statement.
The findings of this question have shown a mean score of 2.05 (refer to Appendix 1) since most of the respondents feel that when they are challenged at work, they will be more motivated to prove their worth.

5.8.6 Summary of Findings for Hypothesis 5
H5 : Challenging work positively increases Job motivation.
For hypothesis 4, the mean score is 2.26 (refer to Appendix 1) indicating that there is significant evidence to support the claims of Hypothesis 5 that challenging work positively increase job motivation.
The findings in paragraphs 5.8.1 to 5.8.5 further support the claims by pointing out that with 82.20% of the respondents feeling that their work is challenging, 71.95% and 79.27% of the respondents feedback that they experience that challenging work is more important than monetary rewards and increasing responsibility keep them motivated, However, there is a significant percentage (69.27%) of respondents will not be motivated when they engage in challenging jobs with no pay increments.
Although there is enough evidence to conclude that challenging work will positively increases job motivation, there are also significant evidence to show that monetary rewards is also another preceding factor towards increasing motivation.

5.9 Summary of Findings
There is significant evidence to support the claims of Hypothesis 1 and 2 leading to a conclusive confirmation that there are indeed positive correlations between higher job satisfaction levels and the presence of supportive peers and effective supervisors respectively.
Although there is a very slight positive correlation between high conflict and political work environment and motivational levels, the huge disparity in the responses produces conflicting results is unable to support Hypothesis 3. However, there is significant evidence to show that the nature of the work plays a more important role in influencing the motivational levels.
Although the findings support the claims of Hypothesis 4 to show that there is a positive impact on the satisfaction levels when there is fulfilment of career expectations, fulfilling needs is still more important and there are other factors that will influence satisfaction levels as well.
There is enough evidence in support of Hypothesis 5 to conclude that challenging work will positively increases job motivation but monetary rewards is also another significant preceding factor towards increasing motivation.

5.10 Linking Findings with Literature Reviews
As shared by Clifford P. McCue and Gerasimos A.Gianakis (1997) the level of satisfaction is the function of the correspondence between expectations, aspirations, needs, and the degree to which the organisation fulfils these needs. The analyses of the findings in the above paragraphs do duplicate similar conclusions, in the findings supporting the hypothesis that when employees' career expectations are met, there will be a positive impact on their satisfaction levels. However, there is enough evidence to show that, career expectations can be forgone so long needs are met.
Besides that, the findings shown that 72.20% of the sample population gives a strong agreement that they find their work challenging and would find it motivating when more responsibility are given to them which corresponds to the study done by Zydziunaite Vilma and Katiliute Egle (2007). However, as researchers Rafikul Islam and Ahmad Zaki Hj. Ismail (2006) has pointed out, monetary rewards must be present which has been tested positive in this study.
Analysis of the data showed effective supervisors to affect the job performance level which Paul F. Rotenberry and Philip J. Moberg (2007) do agree in their assessment of job involvement and performance in the working environment. There are not a significant number of linkages to the literature reviews in Chapter 2 on performance but this gives new insights to effective supervisor being able to improve job performance capabilities which are supported by other numerous literatures (Douglas, 1981; Mark, 2006; Onne, 2001) which are not presented in the current study.
Chapter 6 – Conclusion
6.1 Introduction
This chapter will summarise all the discussions from previous chapters will look into the research summary of this study. The analysis of how the research was done and discussions of the limitations and assumptions undertaken will be elaborated in the next few paragraphs. Based on the evaluations on Chapter 5, suggestions for future research will be discussed as well.
6.2 Research Summary and Analysis
The objective of this study is to examine the factors that will be influenced by Symantec’s working environment. In Chapter 2, many literatures by various professionals and academics were reviewed to explore the possible areas that can be studied and 3 variables are narrowed down, namely job satisfaction, motivation and performance to provide a base on which hypotheses can be formulated. The 5 hypotheses formulated in Chapter 3 are :
i. H1 : Supportive peers will lead to higher job satisfaction.
ii. H2 : An effective supervisor leads to higher performance.
iii. H3 : High conflict and political work environment increases my motivation
level.
iv. H4 : There is a positive impact on employees’ satisfaction when career
expectations are met.
v. H5 : Challenging work positively increases Job motivation.
With reference to the hypotheses, survey questionnaires are created to serve the twin purpose of testing if the employees’ working environments will affect the 3 variables consisting of job satisfaction, motivation and performance as well as to measure the degree of cause-and-effect relationships between the working environments and each of the 3 variables. The methodology can be reviewed in detail in Chapter 4.
From the analyses and findings in Chapter 5, respondents in the working environment are indeed affected by their peers and even superiors, which will be able to affect their satisfaction level which supports the claims by Hypothesis 1. The findings for Hypothesis 2 have indeed shown that an employee’s performance is also based on the effectiveness of their superior in the working environment. A vast majority have agreed that they would need encouragement by their superiors to perform in their workplace and would feel that the supervisor in a way or another affects the job performance level. However, it is unfortunate that the test results for Hypothesis 3 which measures motivation levels in a high conflict and political environments presents contradicting responses. Thus, there are not enough findings to support the claims of Hypothesis 3. As for Hypothesis 4, the findings showed that employees’ needs have to be met to enjoy a higher level of job satisfaction although not necessary to be in line with their career expectations as presented earlier. The majority of the respondents felt that their work is challenging and thus keeping them motivated in striving to excellence. In Hypothesis 5, an increased in job responsibility would in return increase the job motivation level for the bulk of respondents. As much as monetary rewards may not be as important as a challenging job, most would not take up additional workload if no monetary incentives were given.
These hypotheses formulated are generally supported with the exception of Hypothesis 3. Nonetheless, they do have some limitations for Symantec’s work environment which will be elaborate in the paragraphs below.
6.3 Limitation of Research
This study has some limitations that should be acknowledged.
Time was the main constraints of this study. Given only a relatively short time frame to gather, analyse and interpret the data, conducting the research on such a schedule may not be able to provide optimal insights to the subject matter.
The research grouping also focuses mainly on Singaporeans and Permanent Residents. Thus, the results may not serve as a useful indication when applied to other companies or even countries. The current study suggests that Symantec’s working environment can only affect three variables which are job satisfaction, performance and motivation. As acknowledged in the literature reviews in Chapter 2, there are a myriad of other factors within the organisation that may affect employees in other ways.
The responses received do not support Hypothesis 3. Perhaps more hypotheses should be drawn to measure motivational levels in a high conflict and political working environments.
Last but not least, data collected from the survey are from the whole company, perhaps an even better way to conduct the research would be to narrow it down to the various business units (i.e. Sales, HR, Management) so as to have a better and deeper understanding. The results collated also may have limited inference to the subject matter and caution must be exercised when interpreting the results.
6.4 Further Research and Conclusion
In conclusion, the current dissertation examines and surmises how an employee’s job performance, motivation and satisfaction can be influence by Symantec’s working environment. And the results from Chapter 5 have clearly supported the existence of a strong causal relationship between organisation working environment with job satisfaction and performance – the more pleasant the working environment is, the higher the job satisfaction and performance. For Hypothesis 3, there is a clear disparity in their responses – if most respondents feel motivated by a high conflict environment, their motivation level should be affected by the environment as well and yet the actual responses are negatively correlated or perhaps, respondents were caution to give politically correct answer which is why it is advisable to re-test Hypothesis 3 with either different scale or ranking and a more specific questionnaire to determine how politics and conflicts affects employee’s job satisfaction, motivation and performance. Thus, this is definitely an area to explore for any further research.

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