Aggressive Children and Violent Video Games


Since video games were first introduced in the 1970s they have become a popular & important activity for children and teens as well as quite a few adults. Since globalization took place and internet and computers spread all over the world the access for

getting and playing violent games started to increase and children begin to have the ability to play violent games more than before. it became a habit they do every day that made them ignore more important things during the day like (studying , etc………. ) , in the 1990 s video games started in Egypt with killing games like ( motor compact , street fighter wolfenstein 3D ) and this games the main tasks is to kill and wound , graphics' e.g. (Blood), sound e.g.( scream ). Mainly these video games that contains sounds and graphics were the introduction to violent games although there were other games that don’t contain violence like sports games (Fifa) and games that need to think to reach a level of success like (Commandos, Age of Empires) but they ignored all these games and they got interested to the violent games only which became the most important game and target to success.

As violent video games became an important thing to children, it became a problem that faces the parents and children so through researches and methodology's we will try to solve this problem and make people aware of its dangerous.

When Children find that when they always win while playing they act as they play in there life's which made them behave violently and like these video games that make them act by this wrong way due to its violence, this videos make them abstract the same form of violence they see which they think its right because it made them win and feel grateful and proud of themselves for winning that’s why they act this way during day.

Researches found that violent video games affect children brain leads them to act in more creation in amygdale, which has relation to emotions those children act in violent way more than non violent children.

Literature review
According to Jeroen S. & Brad J. (2006),in this study we examine what kinds of individuals are most attention to violent video games were its enjoyed by young males and we considered different individuals including trait aggressiveness, empathy education level and game addiction, and their relation to violent video games. These researchers followed the hypothesis they use the survey method that measured trait aggressiveness, empathy and video game addiction. Aggressiveness measure was 0.79, empathy measure was 0.67 and game addiction measure was 0.92.They resulted that lower educated boys wanted to play both violent and non-violent video games more than did higher educated boys. The more empathic boys were, the more they wanted to play non-violent video games, the higher the level of trait aggressiveness in boys, the more time they spend playing video games. They found the three most popular games between young boys were all violent ones (grand theft auto, counter strike, and call of duty).

In line with these findings Craig's A. Anderson and Brad J. Bushman (2001), violent video game increases aggressive behavior in children and adults. Experimental and non experimental studies with males and females support this. Analyses also expose that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosaically behavior. In this research they use research question and they use method sample. Through studies they examined the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive cognition, Aggressive affect, aggressive behavior, physiological arousal, or pro social behavior. They use 3 characteristics for each study (a) gender (b) age (adults18 years old or children >18 years old), (c) type of study (experimental or non experimental), and (d) publication status. The results of the dependent measures was for the Aggression behavior the 33 independent tests of the relation between video-game violence and aggression, involving 3,033 participants, the average effect size was positive and significant, r +=19, Pro social Behavior eight independent tests of the relation between violent video games and pro social behavior, involving 676 participants average effect that was negative and significant r+=-16, Aggressive Cognition 20 independent tests of the relation between video-game violence and aggressive cognition, involving 1,495 participants, an average effect that was positive and significant_ =.27, Aggressive Affect their were 17 independent tests of the relation between video-game violence and aggressive affect, involving 1,151 participants, also a significant positive effect, r+=.18, and the last measure is Physiological Arousal seven independent tests of the link between video-game violence and physiological arousal, involving 395 participants, showed that exposure to violent video games increased physiological arousal, r+=.22

Definition
The article follows more specific meanings common to media-violence researchers.

Violent Media
Violent media are those that represent intentional effort by individuals to cause danger on others. An “individual” can be a nonhuman cartoon character, a real person, or anything in between. As a result, traditional cartoons (e.g., “Mighty Mouse,” “Tom and Jerry”) are filled with violence.

Aggression
Aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm. It may be directed outward, against others or against the self. It may be driven by emotional arousal.

Violence
Violence refers to extreme forms of aggression, such as physical attack. All violence is aggression, but not all aggression is violence.

These results was consistent with hypothesis that exposure to violent video games create a public-health threat to children and youths. Exposure is positively related with heightened levels of aggression in young adults and children, in experimental and non experimental designs, and in males and females. Exposure is negatively associated with pro social behavior.

Matthew, s. eastin (2006).video game violence and female game player: self-and opponent gender effects on presence and aggressive thoughts. Human communication research. 0360-3989, 351-372, there were tests conducted in order to achieve the positive outcome of games forming aggressive behaviors amongst teenage girls and boys, the studies are composed of the main player and an opponent, a type of opponent, local environment and aggressive behavioral thinking that was formed up from the violent images the game projects. the first two case studies which is numbers 1 and 2 tells us that females who play video games tend to feel a more in depth reality when playing and that they tend to be more aggressive then that of boy that play the same game. While case studies 3 and 4 tells us that players who play against each other forms up a more increased aggressive behavior towards each other, rather then playing against an AI (artificial intelligence) opponent. In this research they use sample and use hypothesis and research question.

While in the past, computer games were more aimed towards male players since 1995 and that aggressive behavior started to grow large in reports after the next two years, around 40% to be précised. Later research shows that more games have been produced to meet up to the requirements of both male and female players and that their response to video game violence is relatively similar. Another research shows that games recently have been more aimed towards females, giving them a more feeling of being aggressive and that the population will be having a high number of violent young women who ever experiences these violent video games. Another research case study indicates that players who play long term game relations such as RPG (Role Playing Games), tend to reflect the game character’s personality into the player’s ones self. In other words, the player will try to imitate or completely mimic every aspect of a game character’s personality and story role. This case has been conducted and shows that this form of behavior is vastly demonstrated amongst female players, and with newer technologies of multi game playing, a single female player can create completely new game character that can portray their feelings and personality. Such as story roles, Skills, abilities, clothing they wear, physical appearance and so fort, this all can be generated by the player. With all these possibilities, a player can even identify them selves by the use of gender characteristics or even racial identification, and if by possible means the player may identify their personality and attitude to match with their generated character, they can even portray them selves as the character in-game, thus if they encounter situations that their character is meeting a hostile situation with another character generated by a completely different player, they will end up forming aggressive thoughts and behaviors towards each other and that the possible out come may even carry on with in the player’s thoughts out side of the game.

According to Craig A. Anderson &Karen E. Dill (1999).On April 20, 1999, Erik Harris and Dylan Klebold launched an assault on columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, murdering 13 and hurtful 23 before turn the guns on themselves.

However it's too difficult to determine exactly what makes these teens to attack their own classmates and teachers, many factors might be concerned. One possible causative factor is violent video games. Harris and Klebold enjoyed playing the bloody, shoot-'em-up video game Doom, a game accredited by the U.S.military to train soldiers to efficiently kill.
In this research they tested the correlation of Video Game violence effects, they choose a sample of two hundred twenty-seven (87males, 149 females) undergraduates from an introduction psychology course at a large Midwestern university. All members of this sample were not obligated to participate in psychological research.

Results

Preliminary Analysis
Formation of Individual Difference Composites
Correlation analysis on the individual difference measures of aggression indicated no problem items (e.g., items that were negatively correlated with the scale) on either of the two scales.
Coefficient alphas indicated that each of the two scales was internally reliable. Alphas were .88 for the CIS and .90 for the AQ. The CIS and AQ were strongly correlated (r =.81, p < .001). Past research in our lab has revealed that the CIS and the AQ load on the same latent Aggressive Personality factor (Dill et al., 1997).Therefore; we formed a single aggressive personality score by averaging the CIS and AQ scores.

According to Dr. Vincent Mathews, a professor of radiology at the university, his study recommended that playing a specific kind of video games may have dissimilar short term effects on brain function than playing nonviolent or interesting video games.
He added that what the examined raising in emotional arousal, he resulted also that violent action caused from playing violent video games.

Although the researcher expect to examine extra research on the long-term effects of violent video games experience and the benefit of these brain functioning diversity. Video games are lucrative business and are worth in excess of $10 billion in sales in the U.S. alone.

References

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