Milk – How Long is the Shelf Life

THE SHELF LIFE OF MILK
Introduction
While there is little controversy over many aspects of product development, food quality issues and safety processes must be taken into consideration. Critical discussion of biotechnology and its application in the food marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States. The world’s population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists must meet the challenge through the production of food products that meet the highest quality issues and follow intense safety processes. Milk is an important food product that is an essential part of a healthy diet, although this product appears to have a relatively short shelf life once the container is opened. This paper will analyze the shelf-life of milk, taking onto consideration the quality issues surrounding safety in the milk-manufacturing process.

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Tarantulas

Tarantulas. Large, hairy, gross and scary are all word that have been used to describe them. Most people think that they are menacing and quick to attack. But truly, unless you are a bug, small rodent or small bird, they are relaxed and non-aggressive arachnids.

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Myths About Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Myth: “Human life begins in the womb, not the Petri dish”
Reality: Actually, it usually begins in the fallopian tube, but it can also begin in a Petri dish.

The testimony of modern science is clear on this point: “At the moment the sperm cell of the human male meets the ovum of the female and the union results in a fertilized ovum (zygote), a new life has begun.”

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Human Biology Experiment

Introduction
The purpose of this Human Biology experiment was to explore the environmental growth throughout the campus of Mount Wachusett Community College. Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. He called them “animalcules” and published his observation in a series of letters to Royal Society. The name bacterium was introduced much later, by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1838. (Wikipedia.org)

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Dapple/Piebald Argument

Let me start by saying, the following information is my personal opinion and response to other, unnamed websites. You can take what I have to say at face value. If you do not like it, that is fine, everyone is entitled to their own opinions. If you understand my reasoning, great, if not, that is your choice. I would like to say, don’t believe everything you read on the web. For every one website with logical, clinical, and actual correct information, you can find at least one with incorrect information or information where people try to present their personal opinions as gospel without stating that the information is ONLY their opinion.

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Meri Moken – Why Antibiotics Stop Working

In 1993, when Meri Moken got recognized by various institutions for her research work on the effect of detergents on bacteria, a lot of her work was actually a reflection of a broader spectrum of research that had started as early as the 1960s. What Meri essentially discovered was the resistance of bacteria to household detergents and bleaches – a subset of the age-old capability by bacteria to adapt to harmful chemicals. Her discovery illuminated the ever-burgeoning problems that pathogens present: that, over time, they become harder to eradicate, as any chemicals used against them become ineffective.

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Inbreeding Depression

There is currently 1.5 to 1.8 million species in the world that have been successfully named and classified. Of this number a vast amount already has, or is in the process of extinction. Loss of habitat, over-exploitation of wildlife for commercial purposes, the introduction of harmful exotic species, environmental pollution, and the spread of diseases pose serious threats to the world’s biological heritage. This is of key concern as the removal of a single species can set off a chain reaction in the ecosystem affecting many others. This is especially true for keystone species, whose loss can transform or undermine the ecological processes or fundamentally change the species composition of the wildlife community.

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Variation in Rocky Shore Populations

Variation in abundance and distribution of intertidal rocky shore populations in relation to the extremities of the environment

Characterized by patchiness in the distributions of abundance of species in space and time, intertidal zones have been studied for decades in order to isolate the several important ecological interactions that cause these diverse assemblages of plants and animals (Underwood & Chapman,2000; Underwood & Chapman, 1998; Underwood, 2000). In order to recognize these environmental factors, two sampling techniques were implemented to obtain the vertical abundance and distribution of selected biota. By applying basic principles of methodology in both of the two ecological sampling practices, a comparison of patterns of biota was formed, thus the ability to quantify distribution and abundance of species on a rocky shore. This resulted in patterns depicting strong evidence for environmental pressures as a defining element of distribution and abundance.

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“Bad Bugs” – Article Summay

In reading the article “Bad Bugs” I learned that bacteria can become immune to antibiotics. Antibiotic-immune bacteria have lived long before we did and they want to keep living, so they have gotten smarter. When an antibiotic drug is introduced to the body, bacteria begin to evolve and form a resistance to it Most of the cases of antimicrobial resistance occur in hospitals. Seventy percent of bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one antibiotic. In the past couple of years drug-resistant diseases have been increasingly showing up in communities to people that haven’t gone to a hospital. This is because when a person takes an antibiotic it kills the sensitive germs, but some resistant bacteria stays to grow and reproduce. If a patient takes antibiotics incorrectly the bacteria have a greater chance to develop a resistance.

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Working Towards a Cure for Cancer

This article was about the how humans are working towards a cure for cancer. In recent years we have gotten closer and are still making a lot of progress. As quoted by George Demetri, “Cancer drug development now is where antibiotics developments was in the fifties.” T-cells are white blood cells that help the immune response. Now that we have made advances in blood bank technology, T-cell transfusions can finally be done. The T-cells are engineered using lentiviral vectors. The T-cells in patients are fixed so that they can fight the viral HIV and this has made a big step towards curing people. Antibodies are also used in Cancer Therapy. According to Donald Drakeman antibodies are the eyes and ears of the immune system, offering constant surveillance for viruses, bacteria, and other disease causing agents formed in the human body. Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that use a ‘lock and key’ mechanism to attach to the antigens. The rest of an antibody can now be used to recruit other parts of the immune system to fight disease. The amount of monoclonal antibodies sales has gone up from zero to five billion dollars in a few years. The patients who also get MAbs are surviving longer and see less toxicity effects than previous treatments. Vaccines are being used for cancer therapy as well. The GVAX cancer vaccines are made from tumor cells that have been changed genetically to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an immune system stimulating hormone. Cell Genesys is developing a pharmaceutical that can be injected into someone. This will put active immune cells in the body after injection. GVAX has also shown a median survival of 26 months compared to 18-19 months with chemotherapy.

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