THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
The arrival of an infant surely brings incomparable joy to every family. But how they raise them will play a significant role later when infants become adults and begin to interact in the world around them.
Because the family inculcates control and a sense of what is right, upon the arrival of an infant who is then considered to be a new member of the family, decisions have to be made particularly by the mother, and one of which is in terms of how to feed her infant. Any parent or caregiver would want to make sure that their infant is right on track in his physical and mental growth. It is every family’s desire to see their children grow smarter and become a top of their class.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Early childhood nutrition is thought to have important effects on education, broadly defined to include the various forms of learning. A number of previous studies have contributed to the current conventional wisdom about the impact of nutrition on education in developing countries.
In the early years of the human species, breastfeeding was as common as it was for other mammals feeding their young. There were no alternative foods for the infants, and the mother, along with other lactating females, would have no choice but to breastfeed their infant. Breastfeeding is the process of a woman feeding an infant or young child with milk produced from her breast, usually directly from the nipples.
On the other hand, formula feeding is an industrially produced milk product designed for infant consumption. Usually, based on either cow or soymilk, infant formula strives to duplicate the nutrient content of natural human breast milk. Besides breast milk, infant formula is the only other infant milk which the medical community considers nutritionally acceptable for infants under the age of one year.
Many mothers do manage to combine feeding by breast and bottle-this is sometimes known as mixed feeding. Mother’s, who return to work or know they’re going to be separated from their baby for a length of time, may choose to use a combination of breast milk and formula. Some mothers express their breast milk so their baby can continue having breast milk when they’re not together.
Evidence suggests that infant feeding practices can have a significant effect in the child’s cognitive development. A study was conducted in Christ church School of Medicine in New Zealand that studied over 1,000 children and during the period from birth to 1 year, they gathered information on how these children were fed. They were then followed to age 18.
Over the years, the researchers collected a range of cognitive and academic information on the children, including IQ (intelligent quotient), teacher ratings of school performance in reading and math, and results of standardized tests of reading comprehension, mathematics, and scholastic ability. The researchers also looked at the number of passing grades achieved in national school certificate examinations taken at the end of the third year of high school.
The results indicated that the longer children had been breastfed, the higher they scored on such tests. (PEDIATRICS 1998)
Formula fed babies, on average, have IQ’s about ten points lower than their breastfed counterparts. This is most likely related to special fatty acids and other components in breastmilk that are known to promote brain cell growth, development of vision and the nervous system. These components are absent in formula (Newman,Solveig 2000)
Each chronological age has corresponding developmental tasks, both physical and psychosocial. (Murray,Atkinson 2000)
Somewhere around age 7, children begin to acquire the ability to relate a series of happenings to mental representations that can be expressed both verbally and symbolically. (Whaley & Wong (1993).
This research is to conduct a study among grade 1 pupils to determine if there is a difference between the different infant feeding techniques on their academic performance.
What stimulated the mind of the researcher in coming up with the idea of this study is thru someone who is doing well in class and a fellow classmate was wondering what type of milk her mom used to nourish her when she was still an infant.
The researchers would like to seek answers based on speculations encountered from different people who were curious to know what is the appropriate feeding technique best suitable to them without compromising the essential nutritional benefit needed for their infant’s welfare.
The researcher’s decision to conduct a study on the Grade 1 pupils of Columban College, considering if there’s a difference on the chosen feeding technique in their academic performance.
In most countries, formal education begins between age 6 to 7 pupils are socially ready to learn in a structured setting and concrete operational thought processes begins. The concrete operation includes systematic reasons, uses memory to learn broad concepts and subgroups by concepts. School-age children can discover concrete solutions to everyday problems and recognize cause and effect relationships. The researchers chose Columban College primarily because it is a private institution where formers believe that infant feeding techniques encompass all members of society regardless of souci-economic status. Secondly, one of the researchers is an alumnus of the school hence, the cooperation of the school was easily sought and it expressed its interest to participate in study wholeheartedly.
This research will promote awareness and serve as a reference to be used for future health teaching especially on the differences of the infant feeding techniques.
B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aims to determine the difference between the different infant feeding techniques and the academic performance of currently enrolled grade 1 pupil of Columban College.
Specifically, the researchers aim to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the subjects according to gender?
2. What is the type of infant feeding technique practiced by the primary
caregiver of the pupil?
3. What is the difference between the different infant feeding techniques used by the primary caregiver of the pupil and the latter’s academic performance in the current academic year?
C. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the study will be significant to the following:
This will provide awareness regarding the benefits of the various feeding practices especially in the academic performance of their children.
This study can serve as a starting point which could open the door for further research regarding milk feeding. This is designed to provide learning and discussion about different infant feeding technique. Hence, provide basic tools of knowledge and experience of knowledge and experience that will enable the researcher to provide thoughtful counseling and guidance to the family. This will also serve as a reference for other researchers.
As part of the health care team tasked to provide health teaching to pregnant mothers, this study will provide an evidence-based approach in discussing the salient points of infant feeding practices.
The community will be provided a baseline data for legislation purpose in support and modification of infant feeding programs. Various stakeholders of the community will be provided with information that the academic performance of a child is influenced by their different infant feeding techniques.
There is no significant difference between the different infant feeding techniques and academic performance.
E. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
FIGURE 1 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.
Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.
Maslow’s original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954, and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954. At this time the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. This original version remains for most people the definitive Hierarchy of Needs.
Maslow said that needs must be satisfied in the given order. Aims and drive always shift to next higher order need Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is an excellent model for understanding human motivation, but it is a broad concept. If you are puzzled as to how to relate given behavior to the Hierarchy it could be that your definition of the behavior needs refining. For example, ‘where does ‘doing things for fun’ fit into the model? The answer is that it can’t until you define ‘doing things for fun’ more accurately.
You’d need to define more precisely each given situation where a person is ‘doing things for fun’ in order to analyze motivation according to Maslow’s Hierarchy since the ‘fun’ activity motive can potentially be part any of the five original Maslow needs.
Understanding whether striving to achieve a particular need or aim is ‘fun’ can provide a helpful basis for identifying a Maslow driver within a given behavior, and thereby to assess where a particular behavior fits into the model:
• Biological – health, fitness, energizing mind and body, etc.
• Safety – order, and structure needs met for example by some heavily
• organized, structural activity
• Belongingness – a team sport, club ‘family’ and relationships
• Esteem – competition, achievement, recognition
• Self-Actualization drivers – challenge, new experiences, love of art,
However in order to relate a particular ‘doing it for fun’ behavior the Hierarchy of Needs we need to consider what makes it ‘fun’ (ie rewarding) for the person. If the behaviour is ‘for fun’, then consider what makes it ‘fun’ for the person – is the ‘fun’ rooted in ‘belongingness’, or is it from ‘recognition’, ie., ‘esteem’. Or is the fun at a deeper level, from the sense of self-fulfillment, i.e .’self-actualization’.
Apply this approach to any behavior that doesn’t immediately fit the model, and it will help you to see where it does fit.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs will be a blunt instrument if used as such. The way you use the Hierarchy of Needs determines the subtlety and sophistication of the model. For example, the common broad-brush interpretation of Maslow’s famous theory suggests that that once a need is satisfied the person moves onto the next, and to an extent, this is entirely correct. However an overly rigid application of this interpretation will produce a rigid analysis, and people and motivation are more complex. So while it is broadly true that people move up (or down) the hierarchy, depending what’s happening to them in their lives, it is also true that most people’s motivational ‘set’ at any time comprises elements of all of the motivational drivers. For example, self-actualizers (level 5 – original model) are mainly focused on self-actualizing but are still motivated to eat (level 1) and socialize (level 3). Similarly, homeless folk whose main focus is feeding themselves (level 1) and finding shelter for the night (level 2) can also be, albeit to a lesser extent, still concerned with social relationships (level 3), how their friends perceive them (level 4), and even the meaning of life (level 5 – original model).
Like any simple model, Maslow’s theory not a fully responsive system – it’s a guide which requires some interpretation and thought, given which, it remains extremely useful and applicable for understanding, explaining and handling many human behavior situations.
F. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Nutrition is one of the various factors that affect learning ability and skills before and after the child is in school.
Learning can be viewed as a multiple input and output process. Hence, the effects of a particular input like nutrition could vary depending on the learning outcomes measured.
The framework of this study posits that the academic performance of the pupil may be explained by the feeding technique used during 0-5 months of age. Academic performance is categorized according to the final grade obtained from the school year 2005-2006 as reflected in the pupils report card as outstanding, very satisfactory, satisfactory, moderately satisfactory, and needs improvement. Infant feeding technique includes Breastfeeding, bottle-feeding. and Mixed Feeding.
G. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
The study will focus on the following:
The type of infant feeding technique practiced by the primary caregiver of the pupil. The difference between infant feeding techniques used by the primary caregiver of the pupil and the latter’s academic performance in the current academic year.
Limitation of the Study
One limiting factor that was faced by the researchers is their limited knowledge and skills and the resources needed in conducting the study. Since this is the first research conducted by the researchers, guidance, and help from different professionals were solicited on how to go about the entire study. Time has also become a great consideration to conduct the study in a much bigger population. The total population of grade 1 pupil in Columban College is 142 however 105 of the population were surveyed, the remaining 37 pupils were not included because some of them have dropped out earlier in the school year after the 2nd grading period and others were fetched by respondents who did not meet the criteria of being a primary caregiver when the pupils was 0-5 months old set by the researchers. Limitation of the study also includes the 0 to 5 months as the duration of their feeding because, on their 6th months, infants are usually given solid foods as complementary supplements.
Delimitation of the Study
The subjects had 5 academic subjects. These are Christian Living, English (Reading and Language), Filipino, Mathematics and Makabayan which includes Music, Arts, and P.E. (MAPE) and Sibika. The pupils are taught by 1 teacher each section for the entire school year. The grades in the computation of the final grade of the subjects were only from SY 2005-2006. Factors that may affect the subject’s performance such as environment, study habits, physical, emotional, psychological capabilities, socioeconomic, feeding duration, nutritional factors, the supplementary feeding received by the subject, length of time caring for the pupil, monthly family income, highest educational attainment of the respondent, brand or type of milk used in the feeding technique were considered delimitations of the study. The study is also not concerned with the composition of the different infant feeding technique.
H. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Infant Feeding Technique – refers to the technique of nourishing or feeding infants from 0 to 5 in months that used either breastfeeding, formula feeding or mixed feeding (combination of breastfeeding and formula feeding).
Breastfeeding – refers to the feeding technique where the infant receives breast milk as a source of nourishment during 0-5 months.
Formula Feeding – refers to the feeding technique that used formula milk commercially available in the market as a source of nourishment during 0-5 months. May also refer to bottle-feeding.
Mixed Feeding – refers to the feeding technique that simultaneously used both breastfeeding and formula feeding as a source of nourishment during 0 to 5 months regardless of time of introduction.
Academic Performance – refers to the pupil’s overall class performance for the school year 2005-2006 as reflected by the pupils’ final grade. Performance is categorized as follows:
Outstanding- grades range from 94 and above
Excellent –grades range from 88–93
Very satisfactory –grades range from 82-87
Satisfactory – grades range from 76-81
Poor – grades range from 70-75
Final grade – the final general average of each pupil determined by dividing the sum of his average rating in each subject by the total number of the subjects. Subjects include Christian Living, English ( reading and language) Filipino, Mathematics, Makabayan ( Music, Arts, Physical Education, And Sibika ). Measurement of achievement include quizzes, recitation, homework, project/themes, Religious involvement for CL and periodic test.
Subject- refers to the currently enrolled Grade 1 pupils of Columban College for
the school year 2005-2006.
Primary Care giver- refers to the person/s who took care of the pupil from 0-5
– also refers to a respondent.
Duration of Feeding – refers to the period of nourishing the pupil during 0-5
months of age using different infant techniques.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Early childhood care for survival, growth, and development comprises the practices of caregivers that day by day, attentively and warmly; translate resources into survival, growth and psychosocial development of infant and children. Under UNICEF’s conceptual framework for infant and child feeding and development, six key care practices are at the center of attention: (1) care for women, (2) breastfeeding and feeding practices, (3) psychosocial care, (4) food preparation, (5) hygiene practice, (6) home health practices.
Nutrition is the science or study of the appropriate diet to promote health. Good nutrition from an early age is vital for a child’s proper mental and physical development. It is known that good nutrition and rich experiences affect brain development. 40% of adult mental ability is formed in the first three years of life. (WHO 2002). Nutrition is an important aspect to the cognitive development of children. Nutrition during the early stages of a child’s life can link to performance in later years. Children are very important to our future, therefore, good nutrition is necessary for the development and growth of a child.
In Kozier 2004, cognitive development refers to the manner in which people learn to think, reason, and use language. It involves a person’s intelligence, perceptual ability, and ability to process information. Cognitive development represents a progression of mental abilities from illogical to logical thinking, from simple to complex problem solving, and from understanding concrete ideas to understanding abstract concepts. The most widely known cognitive theorist is Jean Piaget. His cognitive development theory is an orderly, sequential process in which a variety of new experiences must exist before intellectual abilities can develop. Piaget’s cognitive development process is divided into five phases: sensorimotor phase (birth to 2 years), pre-conceptual phase (2-4 years), intuitive thought phase (4-7 years), concrete operation phase (7-11 years), and formal operations (11-15).
The most common reasons mothers chose breastfeeding includes benefits to the infant’s health, naturalness, and emotional bonding with the infant (Mc Junkin 2000). It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and health protection for the first 6 months of life, and breastfeeding with complementary foods for at least 12 months is the ideal feeding pattern for infants. Increasing duration of breastfeeding was accompanied by a gradual increase in cognitive developmental benefit. (Riva,E. 1996)
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the breastfed infant is the reference against which all alternative feeding methods must be measured with regard to growth, health, development, and other outcomes. Human milk has many beneficial effects on the health of infants (including premature and low-birth-weight infants) and young children. These benefits are magnified with exclusive breastfeeding beyond 6 months of age. Human milk is uniquely superior to all other milk substitutes and is specifically tailored to meet the nutritional needs of the human infant. It has the appropriate balance of nutrients provided in easily digestible and bioavailable forms. The milk changes its composition, from colostrums for the newborn to mature milk for the older infant, to meet the nutrient needs of the growing infant. It provides generous amounts of carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The relatively low protein content presents a relatively modest nitrogen load to the immature kidney.
Breastfeeding also has been linked with enhancement of cognitive development, with some studies showing evidence that these cognitive developmental benefits increased with the duration of breastfeeding and extended through the school-age years.
According to loopholes, breastfeeding provides with the best possible food is particularly important for brain development. Current research, in food, insists that the brain is as important as weight gain, if not more so. The brain grows extremely rapidly during the 1st month of life. Only breast milk can provide the perfectly adopted food required for such growth. In addition, breast milk protects the infant against infection, not only because of its antibodies and “antibiotic properties”. (Sara Porter, 1982)
Exclusively breastfeeding is the safe, sound and sustainable way to feed an infant for the first six months of life. But breastfeeding is important for more than six months. Experts now agree that breast milk can provide all that a baby normally needs for the first six months and no extra drinks or feeds are needed during this period. Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk, from his or her mother or a wet nurse or expressed breast milk and no other foods or drinks. (WHO 2002)
Easy to digest and absorb human milk best meets an infant meets. The literature reports that human milk enhances motor and cognitive development and reduces infant morbidity, mortality, and the incidence of chronic diseases. Studies have shown that breastfed children perform better on tests of intellectual development than do formula-fed children and the benefits may extend into adulthood. Although more research is needed, the link between breastfeeding to a long chain fatty acids found in breast milk, which promote nervous system growth, brain development, and visual acuity. (JEANNETTE CRENSHAW2005).
Williams and Jellife mentioned in their work that breast milk is the most valuable, the cheapest but the most neglected source of protein in the whole of the art and science of nutrition.
Breastfeeding, or lactation, is the ideal method of feeding and nurturing infants. The Bellagio Child Survival Study Group identified breastfeeding in the first year as one of the most important strategies for improving child survival
Internationally, the World Health Organization recommends that breastfeeding is continued up to 2 years of age or beyond, with appropriate supplementation of solid foods. Breastfeeding involves primary, and to a lesser extent, secondary prevention of acute and chronic diseases.
Human milk is uniquely superior to all other milk substitutes and is specifically tailored to meet the nutritional needs of the human infant. It has the appropriate balance of nutrients provided in easily digestible and bioavailable forms According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the breastfed infant is the reference against which all alternative feeding methods must be measured with regard to growth, health, development, and other outcomes.
WHO mentioned that human milk has many beneficial effects on the health of infants (including premature and low-birth-weight infants) and young children. These benefits are magnified with exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding beyond 6 months of age
Studies conducted by the Workgroup on breastfeeding science and society stated the benefits of breastfeeding have been criticized for methodological and analytical flaws including lack of control for confounding factors, poorly designed tools, the varying definition of breastfeeding, and researcher bias. However, professional health organizations stand behind their recommendations for promoting breastfeeding as the optimal food for human infants.
Formula Feeding/ Bottle Feeding
If breastmilk is not available. or you have opted to mix or bottlefeed your baby, one will have to start by selecting a formula.
Bottles have the advantage of being familiar, socially acceptable and less time to consume than the other methods.
When the mother’s condition is contraindicated to breastfeeding or simply chose not to breastfeed, they opt to commercial formulas.
Pilliteri (2004) mentioned that women should use of commercial formulas because they closely mimic human milk. Infant formula remains an infant feeding option. The baby bottle has become a very visible part of Western culture, and increasingly, of other developed and developing nations. This ubiquitous image leads many people to believe that bottles and infant formula are necessary to parenting an infant, regardless of the fact that in most cases they are not.
Infant formula is an industrially produced milk product designed for infant consumption. Usually, based on either cow or soy milk, infant formula strives to duplicate the nutrient content of natural human breast milk. Since the exact chemical properties of breast milk are still unknown, ‘formula’ is necessarily an imperfect approximation. Its use, particularly in the third world, is somewhat contentious. Besides breast milk, infant formula is the only other infant milk which the medical community considers nutritionally acceptable for infants under the age of one year. Cow’s milk is not recommended because of its high protein and electrolyte (salt) content which may put a strain on an infant’s immature kidneys. Evaporated milk, although perhaps easier to digest due to the processing of the protein, is still nutritionally inadequate.(Wikipedia)
Although infant formula cannot replicate all the qualities of breast-milk, it is the only safe alternative. If infant formula is not available, mothers may have to use inappropriate and potentially dangerous foods, such as gruel, or unmodified animal milk, to feed their babies. In contrast, infant formula products are manufactured using strict rules of hygiene and formulated according to recognized, international standards based on expert medical and nutritional opinion. (http://www.babymilk.com)
To be fair, formula companies have produced milk for babies which, at least on paper, seem to resemble the real thing. The formula is definitely better than it used to be. But on close inspection, what the factories make doesn’t quite measure up to what mom makes. It is nearly impossible for artificial baby milk manufacturers to make milk with nutrients even close to what mothers’ bodies can make. And these companies’ primary goal is to make a profit, so marketing and manufacturing issues influence what finally gets into the can.
One of our concerns is that even though formula-fed infants appear to grow normally, are they really thriving? Thriving means more than just getting bigger. It means developing to the child’s fullest physical, emotional, and intellectual potential. We just don’t know about all the long-term effects of tampering with Mother Nature – though we do know that there are significant health differences between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Formulas are nothing more than a collection of dead nutrients. They do not contain living white cells, digestive enzymes, or immune factors. In terms of human history, they are a new experiment.
When an infant is partly breastfed and in part artificially, it can be said that he is mixed fed. This type of feeding is used as an alternative to mothers who could not exclusively breastfeed their infants. Part of the infant feeding comes from commercial formula milk.
You can choose to continue giving your baby exclusively breast milk or introduce formula milk. If you want to mix breast and bottle, but do not want to use formula milk, you can express some of your own milk, which can then be given to your baby in a bottle by the father, another member of the family or a childminder. In this way, you will still ensure that your baby is only receiving breast milk. Or you may decide to feed your baby yourself when you are there and get his or her care to give him formula when you are away.
The general advice is to not offer a breastfed baby a bottle before four weeks of age. This may lead to nipple confusion, which can quickly lead to the end of breastfeeding. During the first three to four weeks your baby will be learning and perfecting breastfeeding skills. Whilst introducing the bottle at one or two weeks of age may ensure that baby accepts the bottle later, you are taking a risk. Some babies easily go back and forth between breast and bottle, but many others do not. Getting a baby to accept a bottle at age two or three months may take some patience, but most babies will catch on after a few tries. Feeding on a bottle uses a different technique to feeding on the breast, and you may find that your baby takes a little time to get used to it. In fact, some babies seem to be determined that they will never get used to it, and moving to mixed feeding can become distressed and worrying event.
A child’s intellectual development, which is to a degree nutritionally determined, is believed to be manifest eventually in his productivity and wages, primarily through mental development and school achievement (Selowsky, 1976, Taylor and Selowsky, 1973; Groosman and Edwards, 1977.)
The examination has always been considered as an extremely important part of the educative process. It has been considered the examination trends to developmental powers which are use in everyday life. Academic performance aim to measure the pupils’ achievement as a result of instruction in a given subject. It shares the limitations with respect to outcomes that can not be measured like interest, appreciation, ability to think critically.
Researchers refer to a brain-growth spurt in infants when brain growth and development occurs most rapidly. The book Scientific Foundations of Pediatrics notes that the brain-growth spurt occurs after birth, and the function of neural tissues depends on the effective connections established between neurons and the structural integrity of each neuron. It adds that this period commences during the third trimester of pregnancy and lasts until about the child is 30 months of age. It is also during this time when nutritional deficiencies may threaten brain development that may, later on, show up as intellectual and cognitive impairment.
In a study of 1,025 schoolchildren, Horwood and colleagues reported that breastfed children had LCPUFA’s in their diet (courtesy of breast milk) and had higher mean score on tests of cognitive ability, performed better on standardized tests of reading and math, and had higher levels of achievement in examinations as opposed to children who were weaned on diets lacking LCPUFA’s. Horwood also suggested that it was likely the increases reflected the effects of LCPUFA’s particularly DHA on early neurodevelopment. DHA is also important in visual development as it serves as a structural component of ocular neural tissues aside from being essential in myelination as it serves as an essential element in the myelin sheath.
Rodgers B., et. al., also conducted a study on breastfeeding on 1978 entitled “Feeding in Infancy and Later Ability and Attainment’. Result of the study showed that these who were breastfed had higher levels of mental capacity than those bottle-fed with breast milk substitute. That said study involved over a thousand breastfed and over a thousand bottlefed whom were followed up until the age of 8 years.
In Chicago, breastfed babies may grow up to be smarter adults, according to research that bolster the evidence linking nursing and intelligence.
Most previous studies did measure breastfeeding’s effects on IQ into adulthood, and the few that did so ignored factors such as parents education and social status, said the researches, who took such as variables into account. In their study of 3,258 Danish men and women, the more babies were breastfed through nine months of age, the higher they scored on intelligence tests in their late teens and 20’s. Breastfeeding past nine months had no additional effect scores.
The link can probably be explained by the effect of nutrients in mothers milk on the developing brain and benefits from physical and physiological relationship breastfeeding involves, researchers said mothers who takes time to breastfeed may spend more time interacting with youngster throughout childhood, which also could affect intelligence, the researchers added.
In the study, mothers had been questioned about their breastfeeding practices when their youngsters were a year old.
Those who had been breastfed for seven to nine months scored an average of about six points higher on IQ tests that those whose mothers said they nursed for less than one month.
The gap “is not the difference between an Einstein and a mentally retarded child”, said study director June Manhover Reinisch. But she said it could be the difference “between normal and bright normal, or bright-normal and superior”. (Tanner&Lindsey, 2002)
It was also stressed in the research that the doctors who conducted the study believed that something intrinsic to breast milk faccounts for the IQ differences of the breastfed and bottle-fed babies. In all the IQ list which include verbal state, performance scale, and over all IQ, an 8.3 point advantages was seen among breastfed babies.
According to an article written by Dr. Alicia Dermer and Dr. Anne Montgomery entitled “Breastfeeding: Good for Babies, Mothers and the Planet”, more and more research shows that breastfeeding leads to optimal brain development. They featured a study wherein the subjects were premature tubic-fed babies. Results showed that babies who received no breast milk had IQ eight points lower on average than the babies who received breast milk. This may be due to the special ingredients of breastmilk which are DHA (docosohexaenic acid) and AA (arachidonic acid) which contribute to brain and retinal development.
Another study which was featured in Pediatrics Vol. 101 no 1 dated Jan. 1998 suggested that breast milk makes kids brighter. The study entitled “Breastfeeding and Later Cognitive and Academic Outcomes” by Prof. David M. Fergusson and L. John Horwood of Christ Church School of Medicine, New Zealand revealed that in an 18 year longitudinal study of over 1.000 children, those who were breast fed as infants had both better intelligence and greater academic achievement than those who were infant formula fed children.
Breastfeeding also has been linked with enhancement of cognitive development, with some studies showing evidence that these cognitive developmental benefits increased with the duration of breastfeeding and extended through the school-age years ( Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatrics. 1998;101:E9.
According to Corazon M. Cerdaña (2000) at the start of the new milleneum, Year 2001, the Food and Nutrition Research and Institute (FNRI), Department Science conducted the latest update on the nutritional status of Filipino children and technology (DOST) in pursuit of the Institute’s mandates of monitoring the nutritional status of the Filipino citizenry. The nationwide survey covered the total of 12,425 children aged 0-10 years, comprised of 10,634 preschool-age children (0-5 years) and 1,791 school-age children (6-10 years). A two-stage sampling design with the barangays and the children as the primary and secondary sampling units, respectively, was employed. Weight and height/recumbent length measurements were taken from the subjects using standard techniques and compared with the WHO/NCHS international standards to asses nutritional status.
Findings of the survey revealed that among the preschool-age children, underweight prevalence was 30.6%, underweight were 31.4%, and prevalence of thinness was 6.3%. Among the school-age children, a higher proportion of 32.9%, 41.1%, 6.5%, prevalence of underweight, underweight, thinness, respectively were shown. Compared with the survey done in 1998, prevalence of underweight and under height among 0-5 year old children generally decreased but thinness and overweight prevalence increased. However, among the 6-10 year-old children, there was a general increase in the prevalence rates of underweight, under height and overweight. Disaggregating by single age, the highest prevalence rate of all forms of malnutrition remained among the younger group of 1-2 year-old preschoolers. The prevalence of malnutrition between the preschool-age boys and girls did not differ much. However, among the school-age children, the boys were more at risk at all the three forms of malnutrition than the girls. Considering the prevalence of malnutrition by region, Bicol region appeared to be the worst of in the underweight prevalence, in the ARMM for under height, in the Cagayan Valley for thinness.
Cecilia A. Florencio’s (2001) study was concerned with the determinants of school-related behavior, in particular in the relationship between health and nutritional status and academic performance. The objective of the study relate to (1) nature, magnitude and distribution of health and nutritional problems of school children; (2) relationship between nutritional status and academic performance; (3) and effects on academic achievement of non-nutritional variables, specifically those recommended in the 1976 project SOUTEL Report. Some 2,304 pupils who were randomly selected from 64 schools in Region I, IV and National Capital Region in Luzon, Region VII in the Visayas and Region XII in Mindanao participated in the study. The others respondents were the pupil’s parents, teachers and school heads. Nutritional assessment was made using anthropometric, biochemical and clinical methods. The children’s mental ability and academic performance were gauged using local standardized tests recommended by the DECS.
In general, the academic performance of the pupils was far from satisfactory, which mean test scores in various subjects not exceeding 50% of the total number of test items. Those in the lower grades did better than those in the upper grades.
The significant positive relationship between the nutritional status in academic achievement remained even when relevant pupil factors, such as mental ability, visual ability, study habits and pre-school education were held constant. Moreover, even after taking into account the influence of a full set of relevant pupil, teacher, school and family related factors, the observed relationship between the two variables still surfaced.
The superiority of breast milk over the commercially available infant milk preparations has been proven in many local as well as foreign literatures. These studies have shown that breastfed children more nourishes that bottle-fed
Dr. Fe del Mundo in 1974 had shown s decline among Filipino infants of whom only 23% were breastfed, 60% were bottle-fed and 17% mixed fed in contrast to the study of Bulatao-jaime in 1965 where 62.1% of babies in Metro Manila were breastfed. Valdecanas, et al in 1981 cited the lack of determination to breastfed as the limiting condition that pushes potentially lactators to bottle-feed. (The Filipino Family Physician 1985)
Family is the smallest unit of the society. The basic of its kind is composed of the mother, the father, and the child who is considered to be the treasure of the family. From conception to birth, everything is well provided in bringing up a good and bright child.
Any infant arrival in the family is the most memorable and blissful moment a parent could ever experience. No amount of any tangible things can compare with the joy of having a child.
It is within the family that determines how a child would be when he becomes an adult. Through the parents influence in particular with the mother, she delivers the most significant impact on the child’s nutrition, attitude, physical and mental growth.
The brain develops through out infancy and childhood and gives rise to cognitive abilities that are multi dimensional and hierarchical. Abilities such as attention capacities and sped of processing appears to underlie other abilities such as learning, memory and executive function. Many of these abilities form what is known as intelligence and can be manifest in readily observable outcomes such as academic achievements. There are many test that adequately assess disabilities and of these the test reviewed in these paper are pertinent test of the cognitive abilities that develop during childhood, show variability in performance without ceiling or floor effects in normal population, withstand repeated administration overtime, maybe sensitive to detect nutritional effects, require few cross cultural modification and are attracted to children.
With these concept the present study was carried out to determine how infant feeding affects the child’s mental ability and physical growth.
This chapter contains the Population and Sampling, Research Instruments, Research Locale, Validation of the Instrument, Data Gathering and Procedure, and, Statistical Treatment of Data.
Retrospective and Comparative research design was utilized in this study.
Population and Sampling
142 currently enrolled Grade 1 pupils in Columban College for the school year 2005-2006 , 105 pupils were utilized in this study. After verifying from the school registrar, the school principal provided the list of the total number of Grade 1 students for the year 2005-2006.
The researcher used the simple random sampling to determine the respondents for the study.
The study conducted in Columban College, Olongapo City.
Demographic data on the name, relationship of the respondent to the subject, and the duration in caring for the pupil were gathered from the respondents. And the demographic data on the gender of the subjects were also recorded to serve as profile.
The academic performance of Grade 1 pupils was based and evaluated from their final grade.
The list of students was provided by the school principal. It is arranged alphabetically and separated according to sections. Other information pertaining to the type of feeding technique used was obtained through questionnaires provided by the researchers and was answered by the respondents.
The researchers conducted this study at Columban College, Olongapo City.
Columban College which was under the management of the Columban Fathers and Sisters started to serve the people of the Olongapo City on the school year 1961-1962. Knowing the Catholic education was one of the primary needs of the community and that the elementary school is the base upon which all education rests, the elementary department was opened. But because the college was under staff and still in its budding period, the elementary department on school year 1961 to 1963, was under the supervision of its sister institution the St. Joseph School. In the opening of the school year 1963-64, with Sis. Mary Mechtilde, and six faculty members to start with, the elementary department separated from St Joseph School. It had then the population of 557 pupils of which 66 pupils graduated from kindergarten and 38 in grade six. Teachers hold classes in Quonset houses while a 2 storey edifice was being built. On the later part of 1966, a 4 storey building with 28 rooms was built and by 1967 the first three rooms of each storey were utilized.By the end of the school year the 4 storey edifice was completed and was utilized for classrooms on the beginning of school year 1969-70
In 1987, the administration of the college was handed by Bishop Henry Byrne, D.D. to the Vincentian Fathers headed by Rev. Fr. Constancio Gan, C.M. as Director and Rev. Fr. Justo Moro, C.M. as Treasurer. Within a short span of time, the new administrators made several substantial improvements on the physical set-up in the main campus and started new constructions of buildings in Barretto which branched out the elementary school department. Behind this progress was the adaption of new policies and guidelines while struggling to keep the whole college financially afloat in the midst of prevailing economic crisis.
Columban College is committed to sound, complete and Christian education. Its goal is the integral formation of a human formation with a profound faith in God., his fellowman and himself, who can develop harmoniously his physical, moral and intellectual talents, acquire a more perfect sense of responsibility and a correct use of freedom, and be educated for active participation in social life as stated in the Mission Statement for all Catholic Schools in the Diocese of Iba.
Validation of Instrument
The validation of instrument was done in this study. The researchers approached 3 persons in the field of education, medicine and psychology that signed and validated the research instrument. Upon hearing the reasons and purpose of this study, their signature was obtained.
Data Gathering and Procedure
A written letter prepared by the researchers and signed by the research adviser and college Dean was secured first. The steps that are followed to collects data include the submission of letter to the Principal of Columban College seeking permission to conduct the study. Upon approval from the principal the letter was presented and the purpose of the questionnaire was explained to the grade 1 class advisers and to the respondents. The researchers distributed the questionnaires to the respondents. The questionnaires answered by the respondents were collected by the researchers.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA
Statistics are used to analyzed and evaluate gathered data. The following statistical instruments were applied to get the desired analysis
This is a section where in tallied frequency will be changed into a percentage value. A percentage distribution is used to combine the result of certain groups of unequal size or proportion. The formula is as follows:
Percentage % = # of respondents per category
Total # of respondents
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The chapter presents the data gathered by the researcher in accordance with the specific problems posed in the study. It discusses the result of each statistical treatment applied in the analysis and interpretation of data gathered. This chapter is divided into three parts, namely: Part I, Demographic Profile of the subjects, Part II, Different Infant Feeding Techniques used, Part III, the result of the test on the comparison between the different infant feeding techniques.
PART I Demographic Profile of Grade 1 pupils in Columban College During the school year 2005- 2006.
The population group of the study was composed of 73 percent of Grade 1 pupils from Columban College
Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Grade 1 pupils of Columban College according to gender.
Gender Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Male 50 48%
Female 55 52%
Total 105 100%
Figure 3 Graphical Representations of Grade 1 pupils of Columban College according to gender.
Table 1 and figure 3 show the frequency and percentage distribution of the sample according to gender. Males account for 50 which is 48 % while females account for 55 which is 52 %.
Majority of the subjects were female.
Part II Different Infant Feeding Techniques used
Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Different Infant Feeding
Infant Feeding Techniques Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Breastfeeding 34 32.38 %
Bottle Feeding 35 33.33 %
Mixed Feeding 36 34.29 %
Total 105 100 %
Figure 4 Graphical Representation of the Different Infant Feeding Techniques Used
The above table 2 and figure 4 shows that mixed feeding rank first among the feeding technique practice by primary caregivers with a total number of 36 (34.29%), followed by bottle feeding with a total number of 35 (33.33%), and ranked third is breastfeeding with a total number of 34 (32.38%).
Due to the busy schedule of mothers nowadays, helping their husband earn and income or taking care of their other children and sometimes doing the household chores, mothers tend to cut short breastfeeding their infants and resort in the next best alternative source of infant nutrition which is formula milk. By doing so the infant will have two source of nutrition which is a combination of breastfeeding and bottle feeding.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the result of the study. Presented are the conclusions drawn in the light of the findings of the study, as well as, the recommendation.
A. Summary of Findings
The study aims to assess the different infant feeding techniques in comparison to the academic performance of Grade 1 pupils in Columban College during the school year 2005 -2006.
Specifically it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of Grade 1 pupils of Columban College according to gender?
2. What is the type of infant feeding techniques practiced by the primary caregiver of the pupil?
3. What is the difference among the different infant feeding techniques used by the primary caregiver of the pupil and the latter’s academic performance in the current academic year?
This comparative study uses retrospective and a survey questionnaire approach personally conducted by the primary caregiver on a one on one basis.The study involved 105 grade 1 pupils enrolled in Columban College during the school year 2005-2006 which is 74% of the total grade 1 population which is 105. The Kruskal-Wallis was employed to prove or disapprove the hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the different infant feeding technique and the academic performance of Grade 1 pupils of Columban College.
The following are the findings of the study, the majority of the subjects were:
a) According to Gender
Female = 52%
b) Infant feeding used
Mixed Feeding = 34.29%
Based on the data gathered, the study disclosed the following conclusions:
1) The study revealed that majority or 52% of 105 Grade 1 pupils in Columban College during the school year 2005-2006 are female.
2) The majority or 34.29% of the primary caregiver of Grade 1 pupils in Columban College during the school year 2005-2006 used mixed feeding technique.
3) The result of the test on the difference between the infant feeding techniques and academic performance revealed that the feeding techniques did not significantly affect the academic performance of Grade 1 pupils of Columban College.
Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are forwarded:
1. Future Researchers, Professionals, and Health Care Groups who would like to continue and adopt this study should conduct it in a bigger population and to add the different variables that could affect the academic performance of the pupils.
2. If a bigger population would be adopted, a longer time frame to conduct similar study is needed.
3. Parents and Teachers must coordinate with each other to help and improve the child’s academic capacity.
4. Although “breast milk” is still the best for babies, future parents are given the option to make wise decisions regarding what is the best source of infant nutrition for their children that would currently fit their economic status, and lifestyle.
Del Mundo , Fe. (1985). Manual on Infant Nutrition with Emphasis and Breasfeeding for Philippines Medical Colleges. Philippines; Nutrition Center of the Philippines
Kozier, Barbara.(2004). Fundamentals of Nursing. 7th edition: Pearson Education South Asia PTE LTD.
Lazaro, Cynthia, M.D.(1985). The evidence of breastfeeding and brain development: The Filipino Family Physician,
Rodgers, B. (1996). Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle. 3rd edition. U.S.A.: Mosby Year Book, Inc.
Pediatrics Breast milk makes kids brighter, study suggests. New Zealand: January 1998
Florencio, Cecilia A. Child, School, Home: “Determinants of Academic Performance.” Edukasyon A Quarterly Monograph Series of the UP Education Reach Program (ERP), Vol.1 No.2. April-June 1995
Mercado, Belinda, The Relationship Between Selected and Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors to the Academic Performance and Scholastic Ability of Grades IV and V Pupil AUF, S.Y. 1991-1992., Philippines:1992.
Bellagio Child Survival Study Group. Child Survival V: Knowledge into action for child survival. Lancet. 2003;362:323-327.
World Health Organization. Community-based strategies for breastfeeding promotion and support in developing countries, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003.
Workgroup on Breastfeeding Science and Society. Breastfeeding: Science and Society, Vatican City, Italy: Pontificia Acemica Sientiarum; 1996.
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 1997;100:1035-1039.