Criminal justice is distinct from the field of criminology, which involves the study of crime as a social phenomena, causes of crime, criminal behavior, and other aspects of crime. Criminal justice emerged as an academic discipline in the 1920s, beginning with Berkeley police chief August Vollmer who established a criminal justice program at the University of California, Berkeley in 1916. Vollmer’s work was carried on by his student, O.W. Wilson, who led efforts to professionalize policing and reduce corruption.
INFLUENCE OF FAMILY STRUCTURE ON JUVENILE DELIQUENCY IN NAKURU CHILDREN’S REMAND HOME
ANTHONY KIRORI KIMANI
A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
Introduction: Issue, Policy, Problem:
States are legislating juvenile justice policy at a remarkable pace. An analysis of proposed and enacted legislation between 2005 and 2007 suggests that over a thousand juvenile justice measures have been introduced in state legislatures in the past several years, resulting in more than 300 new laws and policies. In the late 1980s, juvenile crime, especially violent crime, began to increase dramatically (Snyder and Sickmund 1999). In1994, the juvenile justice and delinquency prevention act was amended to enforce significant changes to the traditional philosophy and approach of the juvenile court (Lawyershop.com). The expansion of transfer laws and the creation of mandatory minimum sentences for commission of serious, violent, and gang-related crimes, drug offending, and gun-related offenses were now a priority to help break a long standing pattern of allowing juveniles off the hook when they have committed crimes which allowed them to serve very little or no time at all. Minimum detention standards were also put into place in some states. With these detention standards in place, it would put the juvenile justice system in line with the adult (criminal) system.
Many studies have shown that the age of onset of heavy drinking has been strongly linked to the formation of harmful drinking habits later in life (Berkowitz, 1990; Glassman, 2010). The increased levels of binge drinking and alcohol abuse reported among university students within one year of entering college may possibly point to increases in alcohol-related public health issues in the future (Kim, Chan, Chow, Fung, Cheuk, & Griffiths, 2009). Research and theory have provided pertinent information about binge drinking and how prevalent the issue is among college students. Binge drinking among college students has been identified as the number one threat to campus life (Wheeler, 2009). College students today are drinking more frequently and in greater amounts than ever before (The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University, 2007). Dangerous amounts of alcohol consumption are simply not safe, and will most likely produce negative outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how binge drinking is defined and measured. It will also review several studies on binge drinking and how it correlates with college students. Additionally, original research was conducted to examine the binge drinking trends of Texas State University Students.
The purpose of this assignment is to examine the biological and psychological explanations of crime. It will primarily focus on Cesare Lombroso’s theory in that he believed that criminals could be determined and identified by their physical appearance and attributes. It will cover Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation and how childhood violence and trauma can affect a person’s behaviour and personality. It will further explain the strengths and weaknesses and how criminals are perceived in contemporary Britain today.
This assignment will discuss the problems between crime and deviance, what counts as crime and deviance and how it varies with place and time. It will include the difference and similarities and give examples of defining crime and deviance. Finally the essay moves on to looking at how to identify why official statistics do not reflect in today’s society and may not be totally accurate.
Sir Robert Peel is known in the books as the founder of the first form of an English police department: the London Metropolitan Police. This was after his London Metropolitan Police Act passed in 1829, giving greater power to the English police force and establishing what he is known for today. Peels ideas were very well defined and offered a lot to policing even up to modern day. To understand the impact of this, we must take a look at Peel’s act, and know how it would change policing.
If we are to be a serious society then we need to address the human element seriously, and that means addressing the worst of the human element along with the best. As humans are raised differently and their amount of self control varies with each individual there can be no constant as to the degree of behavior. Athletes who have had even the most stringent upbringing may enter the professional world as polite and decent human beings, and then after super stardom and the total collapse of inhibition and self control takes hold what once was a stellar upstanding member of society becomes a variant of the criminal class.
Policing is an integral part of all civilized societies. For a society to be maintain peace and order the police must have demonstrate effective patrol. Over the years many departments face the same dilemma; how to effectively and efficiently patrol force while maintaining the safest working conditions possible for its officers. There have been several studies conducted in order to find the most effective patrol methods and crime prevention strategies.
There are two different types of organizations within organized crime and these organizations are called the bureaucratic and patron-client organizations. In this paper we will compare distinctions between the bureaucratic and patron-client organizations and this will include some similarities and differences between the main models of organized crime and why these models are important for understanding organized crime.
Prostitution: Ethics to Legitimize the Business
Many people find the ethical considerations of the death penalty to be highly controversial. However, another highly controversial topic is the legalization of prostitution. Considering my knowledge on this subject and talking to average women who aren’t prostitutes, I’ve come to the conclusion that prostitution should be legalized.