Theodora, of Greek Cypriot de?cent, wa? born a? a??erted by ?ome hi?torian? on the i?le of Crete in Greece, but other one? regi?ter her birthplace a? ?yria. Nicephoru? Calli?tu? Xanthopoulo? title? Theodora a native of Cypru?. Patria, attributed to George Codinu?, a??ertion? Theodora came from Paphlagonia. The Patria a??ertion? ?he wa? ?ub?equent engaged in Con?tantinople, ?pinning wool. Michael the ?yrian, the Chronicle of 1234 and Bar-Hebraeu? location her ?ource in the town of Daman, be?ide Kalliniko?, ?yria. They contradict Procopiu? by making Theodora the female child of a accept trainer, taught in the piou? practice? of Miaphy?iti?m ?ince birth. ?he wa? pre?ented to Ju?tinian throughout one of hi? vi?it? to the to the ea?t province? and ?ub?equent married. The?e are Miaphy?ite cau?e? and record her portrayal amid?t con?tituent? of their creed. The Miaphy?ite? have tended to con?ider Theodora a? one of their own and the cu?tom may have been created a? a way to advance her reputation. The?e anecdote? are generally di?regarded ?upportive Procopiu?.
Theodora had a a??e??ed effect on theatre, ?upplementing an component of orientali?m in enhancing the propo?al to the imperial per?on. ?he furthermore a??erted on the Empre?? obtaining the identical ?alute a? the Emperor from tho?e who came to the theatre. ?he wa? evidently the fir?t Empre?? to do ?o. According to Procopiu?, “Among the innovation? of Ju?tinian and Theodora in the management of the Government there i? furthermore the following. In very vintage time? the ?enate, a? it came into the Emperor’? occurrence, wa? u?ed to do obei?ance in the following manner. Any man of patrician grade ?aluted him on the right brea?t. And the Emperor would ki?? him on the head and then bru?h a?ide him; but all remainder fir?t angled the right knee to the Emperor and then withdrew. The Empre??, although, it wa? not at all cu?tomary to ?alute. But in the ca?e of Ju?tinian and Theodora, all the other con?tituent? of the ?enate and tho?e a? well who held the grade of Patrician?, when they went into into their occurrence, would pro?trate them?elve? to the floor, flat on their face?, and retaining their hand? and feet extended far out they would feel with their lip? one ba?e of each before ri?ing.For even Theodora wa? not di?po?ed to forego thi? te?timony to her dignity, ?he who acted on a? though the Roman Empire lay at her feet, but wa? by no mean? aver?e to obtaining even the amba??ador? of the Per?ian? and of the other barbarian? and to be?towing upon them pre?ent? of ca?h, a thing which had not ever occurred ?ince the ?tarting of time. And while in previou? time? tho?e who came to upon the Emperor utili?ed ea?ily to call him “Emperor” and hi? con?ort “Empre??,” and utili?ed to addre?? each one of the other magi?trate? in agreement with hi? ?tanding at the in?tant, yet if any individual ?hould go in into dialogue with either one of the?e two and ?hould u?e the phra?e? “Emperor” are “Empre??” and go incorrect to call them “Ma?ter” or “Mi?tre??,” or ?hould undertake to u?e any other phra?e but “?lave?” in mentioning to any of the magi?trate?, ?uch a individual would be accounted both fooli?h and too free of tongue, and, a? though he had erred mo?t grievou?ly and had treated with whole indignity tho?e who he ?hould by no mean? have ?o treated, would depart the imperial pre?ence.”
“And while in previou? time? very couple of individual? went into the Palace, and that too with adver?ity, yet ?ince the time when the?e did well to the throne, both magi?trate? and all other one? ?imultaneou?ly ?tayed certainly in the Palace. And the cau?e wa? that in the vintage day? the magi?trate? were allowed to do what wa? ju?t and lawful a? a??erted by their own judgment. Hence the magi?trate?, being u?ed by with their own admini?trative enterpri?e, utili?ed to ?tay in their own lodging?, and the topic? of the Emperor, ?ince they neither glimp?ed neither perceived of any proceed of aggre??ion, bothered him, a? wa? to be anticipated, very little. But the?e ruler?, habitually drawing all affair? into their own hand? to the wreck of their topic?, compelled everyone to promenade attendance upon them in mo?t ?ervile fa?hion; and it wa? likely to glimp?e, virtually every day, all the law-theatre?, on the one hand, for the mo?t part empty, but at the Emperor’? Theatre, on the oppo?ing, one would find gathering? and in?olence and ?trong impelling and all the time not anything but ?ervility. And tho?e who were pre?umed to be intimate with the regal two, ?tanding there relentle??ly the whole day and frequently throughout the larger piece of the evening, being without doze and without nouri?hment at the common hour?, were fini?hed to death, and thi? wa? all that their appearing good trea?ure amounted to. And when at extent they were ?et free from all thi?, the poor young individual? would quarrel with each other over the inquiry of what had become of the ca?h of the Roman?. For while ?ome ?u?tained that it wa? all in the owner?hip of the barbarian?, other one? ?aid that the Emperor kept it clo?e up in a large number of exceptional room?. ?o when Ju?tinian either, if he i? a man, goe? away thi? life, or, a? being the Lord of the bad ?pirit?, lay? hi? life apart, all who have the trea?ure to have endured to that time will under?tand the truth.”
Garland point? that for all the accu?ation? again?t Theodora encompa??ed in the “?ecret Hi?tory”, there i? one mi??ing. There i? no mention of her being unfaithful to Ju?tinian. Procopiu? plea?ure? in recounting how hi? other very well liked feminine goal, Antonina, cuckolded Beli?ariu?. He continue? quiet on Theodora. In?tead he mention? her own activitie? to contradict the only rumor in relative to her commitment that i? cited in the whole work. “And at one time a doubt originated that Theodora wa? ?mitten with love of one of the dome?tic?, Areobindu? by title, a man of barbarian lineage but withal hand?ome and juvenile, who ?he her?elf had, a? it chanced, nominated to be ?teward; ?o ?he, de?iring to battle the a?cribe, though they ?tate that ?he did love the man de?pairingly, determined for the in?tant to maltreat him mo?t callou?ly for no genuine origin, and after we knew not anything at all about the man, neither ha? any individual glimp?ed him to thi? day.”
A repetitive accu?ation of Procopiu? wa? that Theodora treated grave affair? a? topic? of ridicule. However Garland documented the demon?tration? he cite? do not appear all that ?eriou?. “Indeed ?he furthermore made it her enterpri?e, when it appeared be?t to her, to change even the mo?t grave affair? to an event for buffoonery, a? though ?he were on the ?tage in the theatre. And on a certain event one of the patrician?, an vintage man who had expended a long time in agency — who?e title I will by no mean? mention, though I under?tand it well, that I may not indefinitely extend the di?grace which dropped upon him — being incapable to a??emble a liability from one of the Empre??’ dome?tic? who wa? obliged him a large addition, a?ked to her in alignment to lay a a?cribe again?t the man who had made a agreement with him and to entreat her to aid him to get ju?tice. But Theodora, di?covering of hi? rea?on in accelerate, in?tructed the eunuch? that when the patrician came before her, they ?hould all ?tand about him in a around and ?hould hear attentively to her a? ?he talked, propo?ing to them what phra?e? they ?hould ?tate in the kind of a “re?pon?e.” And when the patrician went into the women’? quarter?, he did hi? obei?ance before her in the cu?tomary kind, and with a face that appeared ?tained with tear?, ?aid, “Mi?tre??, it i? a grievou? thing for a man of patrician grade to be in need of money. For that which in the ca?e of other men call? forward forgivene?? and compa??ion i? accounted outrageou? in men of my rank. For in the ca?e of any other man in farthe?t de?titution, it i? likely, ea?ily by a??erting thi? detail to hi? creditor?, to get away ?traightway from the humilitation, but if a man of patrician grade ?hould not have the mean? to rendezvou? hi? obligation? to hi? creditor?, mo?t expected he would be embarra??ed to mention it, but if he did mention it, he would not ever be accepted, ?ince all men would ?eem that it i? not a likely thing for ?carcity to be a hou?emate of a man of thi? cla??. But if he doe? win conviction, it will drop to hi? allotment to bear the mo?t ?hameful and cau?ing angui?h affliction of all [?ocial di?grace]. Now, my Mi?tre??, I do have economic relative? with men, ?ome of who have lent their matter to me, and ?ome have ?crounged from me. A? for my creditor?, who mo?t per?i?tently dog my ?tep?, I am incapable through the di?grace correct to my place to put them off, while a? for tho?e who are in liability to me, ?ince they occur not to be patrician?, they take refuge in certain inhuman excu?e?. Therefore I entreat and ?upplicate and plead you to aid me in getting my privilege? and in getting away from my pre?ent ill?.” ?o he ?poke. And the woman an?wered, in ?ing-?ong, “O Patrician ?o-and ?o” (naming him), and the choru? of eunuch?, catching up the damage, ?aid re?pon?ively, “It’? a large hernia you have!” And when the man afre?h made ?upplication and uttered phra?e? re?embling what he had ?aid before, the woman an?wered afre?h in the identical damage and the choru? chanted the an?wer, until the poor wretch in de?pair made hi? obei?ance in the cu?tomary kind and going away thence went home.” Garland remark? that the view took location in “the relation ?eclu?ion” of the women’? theatreer? where Theodora could fall the imperial ritual gravity and enli?t in per?onal joke?.
Procopiu? other demon?tration of mocking grave affair? anxietie? the wedding ceremony of two ari?tocratic girl?. “There were two young women in Byzantium who were ?i?ter?; they were not only the off?pring of a con?ular dad and of three generation? of Con?ul?, but drew their lineage from men who from i?olated time? were of the foremo?t body-fluid of the entire ?enate. The?e had before went into into wedding ceremony, but it had arrive about by the death of their hu?band? that they became widow?. And directly Theodora cho?en two men — men who were not only of the wide?pread herd, but furthermore appalling young individual? — and made it her enterpri?e to friend them with the women, who ?he a?cribed with dwelling uncha?te live?. And they, fearing le?t thi? be conveyed to overtake, e?caped into the Church of ?ophia, and approaching into the holy bapti?mal ?leeping room, they grabbed with their hand? the font which i? there. But the Empre?? Theodora impo?ed upon them ?uch dire con?traint and pain that in their yearn to get away the?e angui?h they became keen ?ufficient to accept the wedding ceremony in location of them. Thu? for her no location ?tayed undefiled or inviolate. ?o the?e women, again?t their will?, were joined in wedding ceremony to men who were beggar? and outca?t?, much under them in ?tanding, wherea? noble ?uitor? were at hand for them. And their mother, who furthermore had become a widow, not challenging to groan or to bawl out at the calamity, came to the betrothal. But ?ub?equent Theodora, by way of expiating the ?candal, determined to con?ole them at the total co?t of public mi?fortune?. For ?he nominated both of the men magi?trate?. But no ?olace came to the young women even ?o, and angui?h incurable and intolerable dropped from the hand? of the?e men upon virtually all their ?ubordinate?.” Garland point? that there i? a wide?pread denominator in both occurrence?, impo?ing mock on con?tituent? of the ari?tocracy. ?he propo?e? Theodora might have been impo?ing repri?al again?t the preten?e? of an ari?tocratic cla?? which looked down on the low-born empre??.
Procopiu? eventually narrate? that Theodora ?pend much of the year in the palace of Herion on the on the A?iatic ?ea?hore of the Bo?poru?. “?he dwelled the utmo?t part of the year in the ?uburb? on the ?horeline, and e?pecially in the location called Herion, and con?equently the large retinue of a??i?tant? were grievou?ly afflicted. For they had a ?cant provide of provi?ion? and they were revealed to the hazard? of the ocean, e?pecially when a gale came down, a? often occurred, or when the whale made a fall ?omewhere in the neighbourhood.” The whale cited wa? Porphyrion, hara??ing the boat? in the water? of the Bo?poru? for a time ?pan of fifty year? in the 6th century. Procopiu? pre?ent? a more comprehen?ive account of it in “The War?”.
Diehl, Charle?. “Theodora, Empre?? of Byzantium” ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publi?hing, Inc., tran?l. by ?.R. Ro?enbaum from the original French “Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance”). Popular account ba?ed on the author’? exten?ive ?cholarly re?earch.
Gibbon, Edward. “The Hi?tory of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”. (?ee volume 4, chapter 40 for Gibbon’? account of Theodora.)
Grave?, Robert. “Count Beli?ariu?”. (A hi?torical novel by the author of “I, Claudiu?” which feature? Theodora a? a character.)
Bury, J. B. “The Later Roman Empire”. (Volume 2 deal? with the reign of Ju?tinian and Theodora)