Three Concepts of Psychodynamic

Weston (1998), states that one of the postulates fundamental to contemporary psychodynamic theory is that a large amount of mental existence, involving thoughts, emotions, and motivation, are unconscious. As a result, people are capable of acting in fashions or acquiring symptoms that are incomprehensible to them (Weston, 1998; Erdelyi, 2001). Weston asserts that research not only corroborates the theory that emotional and motivational processes are unconscious and that they are in fact unconscious’ attempts to manage uncertain emotional events; but also gives credence to Freud’s theory of a dynamically unconscious process, which more explicitly, suggests that there is a purpose for keeping some issues unconscious. Similar to defence mechanism (Erdelyi, 2001), through the avoidance of a painful stimulus because of negative reinforcement, people may learn to evade concentrating on specific cognitive or affective processes since it is linked to disgrace, culpability, or unhappiness (Weston, 1998).

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Anxiety in Individual Sports

Anxiety is a reaction that is measured using various scales through the observation of cognitive and physiological symptoms that become evident in reaction to a stimulus. In relation to sports, anxiety is often associated with an upcoming performance. Anxiety could also be enhanced by the intense competition offered by sports. Anxiety in connection with sports is a good topic for research since could affect a person’s athletic performance either positively or negatively (Mellalieu, Hanton & O’Brien, 2004).

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Biography of Erick Erickson

Erickson became aware of the massive influence of culture on behavior and placed more emphasis on the external world. Such as depression and wars. He felt the course of development is determined by the interaction of the body, mind and culture. He organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death. Since adulthood covers a span of many years, erickson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults. Ericksons basic philosophy might be said to rest on two major themes: 1. The world gets bigger as we go along and 2. Failure is cumulative.

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Social Categorization and Social Construction theory

It is through social interactions that have put people to act and react implication to others. Due to the social interactions we learn what is acceptable and what is not. Over time these rules become internalised within us and eventually become an unconscious part of our lives and our identity. Social identity theory asserts that group membership creates in group self-categorisation and enhancement in ways that favour the in group at the expense of the out-group and associating with a group even under minimal circumstances is enough to create in group out-group hostility. I will explore the effects of the contact theory or intergroup behaviour. It is also the aim of this essay to explain what is meant by the term social construction and social categorisation and how these two theories have further to our understanding of identity.

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About Sensation, Perception, and Attention

Key factors in mental processes and interpreting different experiences deal with sensation, perception, and attention. There is a certain amount of stimuli that each of us can handle before we are unable to perform in a productive manner. We have explored each individual’s limits to auditory stimuli along with the ability to perform in a specific setting. The majority of our team can handle a great deal of stimuli when participating in various activities. There can be noises of every sort, and it will not distract them in what they are in the process of completing or participating in. The ability to multi-task allows us to handle various stimuli at once. It also allows us to handle many tasks we are obligated to uphold throughout our busy lives. On the other side of the spectrum, there are also team members who can only study or complete specific tasks when there is little to no noise. These individuals can only handle a limited amount of stimuli or they will not be able to perform at maximum capacity. We will further discuss the different experiences and comfort levels of each team member, and how dividing attention will facilitate or impede our learning abilities.

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Core Knowledge and Skills for Primary Mental Health Care Practice

Depression has been described as the common cold of mental health problems (Hotopf, 1996) and 90 % of depression is managed in primary care (Mann, 1992). The National Service Framework (NSF, DoH, 1999) identifies cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as a major component of primary mental health care services, as it has a strong effectiveness research tradition (Salkovskis, 2002). CBT is a short term, structured form of therapy that provides clients with a rationale for understanding their problems (Blackburn & Davidson, 1990). CBT requires a sound therapeutic alliance; the therapist should demonstrate warmth, genuine regard and competence (Beck, 1995). It follows the premise that psychological problems arise as a direct consequence of faulty patterns of thinking and behaviour (Maphosa et al, 2000). In mild depression the person ruminates on negative themes and CBT examines the effects of people’s thoughts on how they feel and what they do (J. Williams, 1997). It is now common to draw out the central elements of CBT to offer a more condensed intervention (Teasdale, 1985). Self-help materials are usually given to clients as homework (Richards et al, 2003). Bower et al (2001) found that self-help techniques can have considerable impact on a broad range of mental health problems. Guided self-help should be considered for clients with mild depression. It is a collaborative form of psychotherapy; the client learns new skills of self-management that they can put into practice in their daily lives (DoH, 2003). The following analysis examines the role-play of a primary care graduate mental health worker (PCGMHW). These workers were part of a government plan to enhance mental health services in primary care (DoH, 2000). Throughout this analysis strengths and weaknesses of the therapist will be discussed and what improvements can be made to the demonstrated clinical skills.

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