Leading up to the Earthquake, foreshocks occurred in San Francisco, California on April 18, 1906. It was caused by the San Andreas Fault as a strike-slip fault that happened at 5:12 am. Before the destruction, there was stress deep in the grounds, plates were grinding. Its shaking and stress commenced from San Bautista to midway of North and West, approximately more than 295.5 miles, at 5:13 am. Abruptly, a temblor occurred, the first shock waves at about 5:13 am spread epidemically. Seismic waves spread, it made a surface change, its motion into liquid-like. The surface was shaking intensely that some cracks and faults in the ground appeared. Most of the grounds were torn or heaved, the magnitude was 7.8 and above. The temblor lasted for about a single minute.
The complexity and amplitudes showed that its severe amplitude transcended the range capability of the seismograph, significantly off the scale. Although it caused a massive amount of damage of quake, it caused fires. The blaze caused firestorms that it triggered a terrifying inferno that spread for kilometers in most parts of California. Most of the neighborhoods were vanquished by the flames that were spreading and those that were already there. A majority of cities and buildings were buildings, there was no water to control the flames since for the unbelievable reason that the water pipelines were broken and the water mains were shut down since the Earthquake occurred. The total area felt were most parts of the western U.S. like Southern Oregon, Western Nevada, and California. The rupture surface line was in San Bautista, San Francisco, Point arena, and Shelter Cove. The damages were extremely severe that it produced countless little and large casualties, more than twenty-seven thousand, nine-hundred buildings were destroyed. Ceilings of every building collapsed, that the destructive intensity of the damage extended over 600 kilometers. Structures that were made of brick and frame were voluminously diminished or impaired. Fortunately, only one building is torn apart.
An intense degree of annihilated places were the city of Fort Bragg and Santa Rosa since they were both violently ravaged by the Earthquake and Fire.
Regrettably, not only above the ground was destroyed but also internally. The internal damages triggered the lack of water, sewers and water pipelines were broken, and water mains were broken or shut down. On the path of cars, roads crossed in fault-lines, it made an impassable track, the movement of the road turned to be about 3 to 4.5 meters long. Some roads were even bent into sideways or wavelike forms, and some collapsed especially in the freeways. Additionally, most of the trees swayed, broken off, or thrown down.
The casualties of both the Earthquake and Fire were negatively strong. Dead human bodies and injured people were caused by the falling and collapsing buildings. Each building either has the ceilings collapse, walls or the surface top of the building falling down. As the fires gained momentum, some survivors gather to any place where they could find water, and it is the refuge plaza. In the plaza, some men and women were crying, others were praying, one was fanatic, saying “The lord sent it, the Lord!” The earthquake was horrifying that awakens people and gives a difficult sensation to believe, that in the palace hotel, G.A. Raymond was awoken by the Earthquake, he describes his escape: “I had $600.00 in gold under my pillow. I awoke as I was thrown out of bed. Attempting to walk, the floor shook so that I fell. I grabbed my clothing and rushed down into the office, where dozens were already congregated. Suddenly the lights went out, and every one rushed for the door… I asked a man standing next to me what happened. Before he could answer a thousand bricks fell on him and he was killed. A woman threw her arms around my neck. I pushed her away and fled. All around me buildings were rocking and flames shooting. As I ran people on all sides were crying, praying and calling for help. I thought the end of the world had come.”
The Earthquake caused massive amount of damage that it symbolizes the end of the world, according to Jerome B. Clark a business man lived in San Francisco
“In every direction from the ferry building flames were seething, and as I stood there, a five-story building half a block away fell with a crash, and the flames swept clear across Market Street and caught a new fireproof building recently erected. The streets in places had sunk three or four feet, in others great humps had appeared four or five feet high. The street car tracks were bent and twisted out of shape.”
The Earthquake also made difficulties of mailing and made disastrous events, according to the letter of Ernest H. Adams, a sales representative: “For me to describe the scenes and events of the past few days would be an impossibility at present, and no doubt you would have had more news regarding the awful fate of this city than I myself know. All that I can say at this writing is, that about 5:15 a.m., Wednesday morning, I was thrown out of bed and in a twinkling of an eye the side of our house [at 151—24th Ave.] was dashed to the ground. How we go into the street I will never be able to tell, as I fell and crawled down the stairs amid flying glass and timber and plaster… When the dust cleared away I saw nothing but a ruin of a house and home that it had taken twenty years to build. I saw the fires from the city arising in great clouds and it was no time to mourn my loss so getting into what clothing I could find, I started on a run for  Kearny St., five miles away.”
The cost of the Earthquake was more than approximately 478 million dollars, in the examination, more than 79 million dollars from the earthquake, and 399 million dollars from the earthquake and fire alone. The people who were involved were firemen and citizens, most of the firemen stand by helplessly because the fire was intense and continuous, unfortunately, there was lack of water. The citizens were crying, most or all were injured, and bloodshed was common. There more than 2900 people dead. The great earthquake made an intense historical impact that it triggered new knowledge and research. Californians were hastily reconstruction their ruined buildings so far. The reconstruction also leads to the acclivity and prosperity of upgrading structures into earthquake-proof since they were in fact reinforced by steel, with the help of Engineers. Engineers also widened the streets, they widened it by capturing space either force or voluntarily relinquishing lands. Overtime after the San Francisco Earthquake, the pursuit of knowledge of Earthquakes epidemically and or widely spread. It increased the observation of Earthquakes.
A majority of Scientists in California did earthquake research about faults, shockwaves, and temblors, especially, comprehending how they occur, additionally, to measure the intensity of shaking, speculating the probabilities and predicting. Fortunately, geologists also investigate, they study how the earthquake occurred by compiling lists of historical earthquakes, recently or lately. As time and the prolonging research of Earthquakes went by, advanced technology rises, protection takes its place.
The lead of a comprehensive earthquake came from monitoring the temblors. A strenuous earthquake research program is developed and over time, it increased. Since and after 1906, more seismographs were developed; it measures the shaking intensity and surveys the tracking plate motion, observes stress and distortion, and measures the movement of the Earth. The observations and data were the keys to mapping out the locations for certain purposes. Scientists made maps of locations containing detailed pictures of hundreds of faults, historical faults and future references of the earthquake being imminent.
They used the maps as blueprints or to anticipate where the shaking is strong or intense. The maps helped engineers of where to build structures safely where temblors occur rarely. The reduction of Earthquake hazards were reduced as they upgrade, research, and revised their styles of structures, safety, and paths. Earthquake Research guided insurance companies by helping businesses and individuals deal affordably if earthquakes occur. There were contributions of scientists that helped the research. More than 19 scientists contributed the data of earthquakes, some published books, and others made electronic sources like a video, the internet, or radio.
The Earthquake research, data, and references became a compiled document. It made a benchmark for the future, showed critical details about integrated and investigations of earthquakes, and it was the highest regard amid the seismologists. The progress provides significant advances of new knowledge, raises major questions, and stating long-term probabilities of Earthquakes. There were knowledge and publications of comparisons to common objects. It was the significant observation by Professor H.F. called “The elastic rebound”, it explains how the Earth elastically distort, it gave an example about bending down a stick until it snaps or breaks, that it causes stress, waves, shocks, and pressure. The theory also explains how the plate motion is accumulating, and a stately detail how the tectonic plates relate to the Earthquake occurrences and what evidence it is based. There were also people with great scientific insight about the earthquake and launched the science of earthquakes. These people were Professor Lawson, Professor Reid, and Professor Gillbert.