CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of SIWES
SIWES refers to the employment of students nearing under-graduation in firms or organizations, which operate on activities related to the respective student’s major subjects.
The course, CSC 3299 as offered in Ajayi Crowther University is a compulsory subject offered by every computer science student in the 2nd semester of the third academic year with the objective of enabling students to come into contact with real life applications regarding the knowledge and skills gained in both theoretical and practical courses of the university.
The core courses of Computer Science offered by ACU are both theory and laboratory practical -based and aid in providing a theoretical concept or ‘base’ to the students so that they are equipped with sufficient knowledge for joining the work force after completion of under-graduation. SIWES on the other hand helps the students familiarize themselves with the experience of being employed in their field and effectively learning and applying the knowledge required by carrying out their activities in the offices and fields.
1.2 Objectives of SIWES
The general objectives if SIWES are outlined as follows:
Helping students break free from the theoretical world of textbooks and class courses and leap into the real world of applications of knowledge.
Enabling the students to effectively interact in a work environment within a
hierarchy of employees. The efficiency in working in groups and under higher
authorities is tested during this course.
Helping students to express dependability, initiative, resourcefulness and
professionalism in the tasks they are assigned.
To evaluate the person’s ability to communicate and operate under pressure, if
To help students enhance their creativity and efficiency in dealing with
projects related to their field of study.
To enable students to pick up skills from the experience and projects of other
employees to apply in their own tasks.
To enable the student realize their relative strength in a field with many practical applications and help students come out with final year projects that model real life industry challenges.
2.0 Origin of the Report
This report has been prepared as a requirement of the internship program. The report
was based upon the ICT department of the organization Nigerian civil aviation authority (NCAA).
2.1 ORGANISATION BRIEFS AND STRUCTURE OF NCAA
Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority is the regulatory body for aviation in Nigeria. It became autonomous with the passing into law of the Civil Aviation Act 2006 by the National Assembly and assent of the President, Federal Republic of Nigeria. The Act not only empowers the Authority to regulate Aviation Safety without political interference, but also to carry out Oversight functions of Airports, Airspace, Meteorological Services, etc as well as economic regulations of the industry.
Nigeria has just successfully passed through the ICAO Security follow-up Audit of May 2006 and the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit in November 2006. Nigeria is now preparing for the American FAA IASA Category 1 Certification.
With over 25 Airports, 30 Airlines, 590 Pilots, 19 Flight Engineers, 258 Air Traffic Controllers(ATC), 677 Aircraft Maintenance Engineers, 1103 Cabin Crew and 4 Aircraft Dispatchers, Nigeria now boasts of improved aviation infrastructural facilities at the Airports, state of the art navigational aids, modern weather forecasting equipment and highly skilled manpower to ensure safety and comfort of the flying public.
Airlines have started bringing in brand new aircraft to the industry 737-700 new generation, Regional Jet CRJ 400/900, Dash 8-400Q, Business Jet/Turboprop, Helicopters, B777, Dreamliner B787, Jumbo Jet Boeing 747-400 series as well as brand new Regional Jet Embraer.
3.0 NCAA STRUCTURE
Senior Management :
Director General: Dr. H.O. Demuren
Director of Airworthiness Standards: Engr. P. Ekunwe
Director of Licensing: Capt. Adamu Mshelia (Acting)
Director of Operations and Training: Capt. A. N. Aliyu (Acting)
Director of Aerodrome and Airspace Standards: Mr. Lawal Haruna
Director of Air Transport Regulation: Ms. I. Sosina
Director of Finance and Administration: Mrs. Elemanya Ebilah
Director of Consumer Protection: Alh. Abdullahi Adamu
Company Secretary/Legal Advisor: Mrs. A.A. Gbem
4.0 BRIEFS ON ICT DEPARTMENT
4.1 Our Goal
To provide high quality, customer and staff-focused Information and Communication Technology support for efficient and value-added service delivery.
4.2 What We Do
Our purpose is to ensure that our structures – such as all communication-based procedures for the NCAA – within and outside – conforms to standard ICT platforms and practices, carefully targeted to meet our goal.
• To deploy modern-based ICT facilities that will become catalysts in the innovative processes of effective aviation safety within our air-space
• To embark on an on-going process in which to foster better information and communication access for aviation service users
• To provide the means by which information and communication knowledge is developed, stored, aggregated, manipulated and diffused within and outside the NCAA and to become the major transformational medium of aviation safety reformation
• To technologically support and enable NCAA’s full participation in the global economy
• Advice on adoption of most efficiently and effective ICT policy
• Ascertain proper and smooth operations of computer systems at the headquarters
• Draw ICT and ICT-related Budgets
• Assess the impact of ICT in economic growth and development
• Drawing up specifications to facilitate procurement of appropriate computer hardware and software related features within the organization
• Supervise the installation and commissioning of computer network systems
• Contact point on all ICT-issues.(i.e. ICT Management)
• Represents the organization in all forums on ICT-related issues
• Coordinate training of staffs on computer systems in line with E-Government Strategy to build a proper ICT capacity within the organization
• Advice the organization on information security in the use of computers and Maintain important information and data backups
CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF WORK DONE
During my six months SIWES at NCAA, I worked extensively in the Network and maintenance unit, Where I gained a lot of experience in network environment and system maintenance.
6.1 NETWORK STRUCTURE OF NCAA:
6.2 SUMMARY ON THE NCAA NETWORK
NCAA uses a domain to organize the network environment. Domains are groups of PCs on the same network and are a method to isolate communications between the members in the domain and the other data traffic.. Anyone in a domain can communicate with each other and out bound, however PCs not defined in the domain can not communicate with those in the domain.
Basically the network starts from when the satellite in space sends radio signals down to the satellite dish receiver (ku-band, ka-band, c-band e.t.c). This satellite dish receiver is connected to the private port of the internet modem then the public port of the modem is connected to the ISA server which acts as the gateway to internet access. The ISA server is connected to a domain controller which controls the domain environment by granting anyone who has a registered account on the domain access to the internet recourse. I.e. anyone who does not have an account or valid log on credentials cannot use the internet. Domain controller can also be used to control the network environment by restricting the rights to chance setting on the workstation so that only administrative rights can alter settings.
The ISA server is also connected to an antivirus server which monitors the automatic updates and downloading of update for all workstation in the domain with a specific antivirus used for the network installed on them. The ISA server is also connected to a 24 port switch which is connected to the different switch cabinet in each directorate of office buildings (since it is a 24 port switch it take a maximum of 23 directorates, another switch can be connected to the first switch in case of more buildings). Ever building has a cabinet where LAN (local area network) connections are distributed to different offices. The cabinet comprises of switches and patch panels. The patch panel is a device that is used as a repeater so that signals don’t get loss over a long cable. One of the cables that comes from the main 24 port switch goes to the patch panel then a RJ-45 cable is connected from the patch panel to the switch (mostly a 24-port switch) in the cabinet (in case of two switches we have two patch panels.). The patch panel then distributes the connection in the office or to other offices in the building as LAN port where workstations can be connected to by the use of RJ-45 cable (workstations can also be connected directly to the switch).
As for wireless connection, a wireless router or access point is placed at every passage way in each building. The wireless access point is either connected to one of the switches in the cabinet or the main 24-port switch.
Building 1 cabinet
LAN port workstation
IMAGE OF SERVER FOR NCAA’S HEADQUARTER
IMAGE OF ANTIVIRUS SERVER FOR NCAA’S HEADQUARTER
10.0 DESCIPTION OF DEVICES USED IN NCAA NETWORK
10.1 SATELLITE DISH AND FREQUENCY BAND
NCAA uses a ku-band (Kurtz under band) satellite dish with VSAT (Very Small ApertureTerminal) installation equipment. VSAT is the equipment used to uplink and downlink using either C, Ka or Ku band. There are various types of frequency bands, the three primary bands are listed below:
10.2 C Band
C Band is the oldest and most frequently used frequency for sending signals to satellite dishes. The C band consumes 3.7 to 4.2 GHz for sending the signals to earth stations (known as downlink) and 5.9 to 6.4 GHz for vice versa (known as uplink). This frequency band has been found to operate under extreme weather conditions as well. It has been divided into 6 subcategories known as Extended C-Band, Super Extended, INSAT, Palapa, Russian, and LMI band. The band requires large size Prime-Focal dishes commonly known as BUD to operate. The dishes vary between three feet to nine feet. The band will require specific C-Band LNBF (Local Noise Block Feed). It is mainly used to transmit older channels that operate on this band. C band dishes are large in size approximately 6-7feet.
Diagram showing C-band dish Antenna
11.0 Ku Band
Ku Band or Kurtz Under band is used to transmit signals at high frequencies. The downlink frequency of the band ranges from 11.7 to 12.7 GHz while uplink frequency ranges from 14 to 14.5 GHz. NBC started its transmission services on this band in 1983. The DVB or Digital Video Broadcasting service utilizes this band. The North American satellites broadcast Ku band signals because they operate in the same range of downlink and uplink frequency. The band consumes more power than C Band due to additional data transfers. It also requires 16 to 24 transponders used for broadcasting satellite service. It is mainly used to transmit FM Audio services and in social and business network projects. The band requires Ku-band LNBF, coaxial cable, and a C/Ku band feed horn antenna. RG-6 is the perfect coaxial cable for transmission.
Diagram of a Ku-Band-Solid-Dish-Antenna
12.0 Ka Band
Kurtz Above or Ka Band requires more power to transmit signals. The downlink frequency range is 18.3 to 20.2 GHz while uplink frequency range is 27.5 to 31 GHz. The size of the dish for this band is even smaller than C band. It varies from two feet to five feet. It is used extensively in military airplanes and vehicle speed detection.
Diagram of a Ka-Band-Solid-Dish-Antenna
12.1 ISA server/proxy server/gateway
The ISA server also acts as a proxy server/gateway. A proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the Internet so that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control, and caching service. A proxy server is associated with or part of a gateway server that separates the enterprise network from the outside network and a firewall server that protects the enterprise network from outside intrusion.
An advantage of a proxy server is that its cache can serve all users. If one or more Internet sites are frequently requested, these are likely to be in the proxy’s cache, which will improve user response time. A proxy can also do logging.
A user on a workstation which is connected to the domain can only view the internet if the address and port number of the ISA server is set in the proxy address and port settings.
13.0 HOW TO SET THE PROXY SETTINGS:
• STEP 1: Click tools then click internet options on the browser.
• STEP 2: Click on the connection tab and then click LAN settings.
• STEP 3: Type in the ISA server ip-address (e.g. 192.168.2.1) in the address box and also insert the port number (e.g. 3128).
14.0 DOMAIN CONTROLLER
NCAA uses a domain to organize the network environment. Domains are groups of PCs on the same network and also a method to isolate communications between the members in the domain and the other data traffic.. Anyone in a domain can communicate with each other and out bound, however PCs not defined in the domain can not communicate with those in the domain.
A domain controller is a device used to organize and control a domain environment. A domain controller makes use of an active directory to organize all user account in the domain. An active directory is a Microsoft technology, part of Active Platform, which enables applications to find, use, and manage directory resources (such as user names, network printers, and permissions) in a distributed computing environment.
Image of an active directory interface
15.0 HOW TO JOIN A WORKSTATION TO A DOMAIN
STEP 1: right-click on my-computer then click properties.
STEP 2: click on system properties.
STEP 3: click on computer name tab, click change.
STEP 4: Type in the computer name (e.g. pro 10), then click the domain radio button and type in the domain name (e.g. dpetri.net), then click ok.
STEP 5: After clicking OK you would prompt with a username and password dialog box where only those with administrative credentials would be able to logon. Type in the user name and password, and then click OK.
STEP 5: After clicking OK, you would be prompted with a dialog box welcoming you to the domain. Then restart the system.
17.0 ANTIVIRUS SERVER
The antivirus server is a separate system that is connected to the ISA server. It is used to protect the network from harmful treats like spyware (i.e. worm, virus, adware e.t.c.). The antivirus server makes use of windows server 2003 operating system, with a network antivirus (e.g. e-trust) installed on it. For any workstation on the network to be protected by the network antivirus server a copy of the network antivirus must be installed on them. To make the antivirus copy work with the antivirus server the proxy settings must be set using the antivirus server Ip-address (e.g. 192.168.2.4) as the address in the proxy settings.
18.0 MAIN SWITCH
The main switch is a switch that is used to distribute the network connection to different buildings. A switch is a device that is used to link systems or workstations together. A switch is mainly used in a star topology.
18.1 Properties of a switch:
• Collision: this is the jamming of signal in a transmission medium.
• Collision domain: this is the environment in which collision occurs.
• Broadcast: this is the sending of signal from a system to the rest of the system connected to the switch. A broadcast is usually sent across all the collision domains as one virtual domain.
• Broadcast domain: this is the environment in which a broadcast is sent across.
• Multicast: this is the sending of signal from on system to a selected group of systems connected to the switch.
• Unicast: this is a signal that is sent from on system to another.
18.2 Internal operations of a switch
A switch has one big channel (broadcast domain) with some dedicated path known as collision domain. The number of collision domain depends on the number of ports on the switch (i.e. a 24-port switch has 24-collision domain). Switches always have one broadcast domain no matter the amount of ports.
A switch operates with a protocol called CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance). The CSMA/CA unlike the CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access/collision detection) of a hub helps the switch to see a possible collision before it occurs and avoids it.
One broadcast domain
5-ports with 5-collision domain
Image of a 24-port switch
19.0 PATCH PANEL
A patch panel is a panel of network ports contained together, usually within a telecommunications closet that connects incoming and outgoing lines of a LAN or other communication, electronic or electrical system. In a LAN, the patch panel connects the network’s computers to each other and to the outside lines that enable the LAN to connect to the Internet or another WAN. Connections are made with patch cords. The patch panel allows circuits to be arranged and rearranged by plugging and unplugging the patch cords. The use of a patch panel is necessary because is help to repeat signals travelled over a cable from a long distance to prevent data loss. A patch panel is connected to a switch respectively according to the number on each port of both the switch and patch panel.
Image of a patch panel image of patch cables
Patch panel Image of a patch panel connection with a switch
A router is a device or a computer that is used to connect two or more networks together. Routers are physical devices that join multiple wired or wireless networks together. Technically, a wired or wireless router is a Layer 3 gateway, meaning that the wired/wireless router connects networks (as gateways do), and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. A router can also be called a computer because it has a LAN-port, an operating system (OS) and memory.
20.1 Router’s memories
• ROM (read only memory).
• DRAM (dynamic random access memory).
• NVRAM (non volatile RAM).
ROM: This is a permanent memory that is used to store the hardware configuration of the router.
DRAM: This is a temporary memory that is used to store the running-configuration of the router.
NVRAM: This is a partially permanent memory that stores the startup-configuration of the router.
FLASH: This is permanent memory that stores the IOS (Internetwork operating system) of the router.
A router has an operating system and a user interface (depending on the brand of the router). The user interface can be viewed by connecting the router via LAN-cable to a computer. There are series of steps taken to view the user interface.
21.0 STEPS TO VIEW THE USER INTERFACE OF A ROUTER:
• Know the default ip-address of the router (usually 192.168.0.1).
• Connect the router to a computer.
• Open a browser.
• Click on the file tab.
• Click on open then a dialog box appears.
• Type in the Ip-address of the router in the text box and click OK, then a logon dialog box appears. The default username and password are both admin and admin.
• Type in the username and password then click OK.
In the user interface you can change the Ip-address to suit your company setting, change the security protocol (i.e. either WAP, WAP2, WEP e.t.c), router name e.t.c
An image of a wireless router
21.1 VPN: A VPN (virtual private network) is a device that uses a series of encryption and algorithms to secure the data transmitted over the public internet. It allows users to work on their company network from their home with a higher level of confidence that no one else can access their work i.e. it provides a level of encryption so that an outsider would not be able to hack in to the network. VPN eliminates distance between two computers and establish a secured connection with two computers. A VPN can also act as a router in the sense that it can be used for connecting two or more networks together.
Image of a VPN box
22.0 MAINTENANCE UNIT
On the 14th of July 2010 I was transferred to maintenance unit of NCAA headquarters. In this unit I was fortunate to be exposed to knowledge on hardware and software.
22.1 Computer hardware identification
A computer system basically contains the following components/devices:
Modem and NIC Card
22.2 System case:
A system case is required to hold all your components together. It houses all the internal component of a system. The system cases come in two form factors which are AT and ATX. Nearly all the cases made nowadays are ATX as the motherboard manufacturers make majority of their motherboard in the ATX form.
Image of an ATX system case
A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer that holds many of the crucial components of the system, while providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board. Most motherboards made nowadays are ATX. An ATX motherboard has the standard I/O (Input/output) connectors such as PS/2 ports, parallel ports, serial ports, etc, built onto the motherboard. Old AT motherboard on the other hand uses I/O cards and cables which requires to be plugged into the motherboard, which gets a bit untidy. AT motherboard requires AT keyboard and AT power supply. ATX motherboard fits into an ATX case and comes with an ATX power supply. The following is a picture of an ATX motherboard
Image of a motherboard
The processor (CPU, for Central Processing Unit) is the computer’s brain. It allows the processing of numeric data, information entered in binary form, and the execution of instructions stored in memory. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer’s hardware and software. It is often called the “brains” of the computer.
Image of a processor
A memory is the name given to a silicon chips that stores volatile computer data. The word Volatile means that the contents of memory will be lost if the power of the computer switched off. Memory stores some of your operating system and application data while it is being run. The more memory you have in your computer the higher the amount of application you can run simultaneously, and will provide an overall better system performance.
Memory comes in different forms. The older system uses SDRAM, while the current system uses DDR-SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory).
Image of a memory module
CHAPTER 3 RELEVANCE OF WORK EXPERIENCE TO STUDIES
At Nigerian civil aviation authority (NCAA) I was exposed to new practical experience of networking, system maintenance and Information Technology. All the theoretical aspects that I have learnt over the years at the university are relevant to my work experience and I have seen how my experiences can be applied to this fast developing IT world.
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION
From this experience carried out during the industrial training period. I hereby humbly make the following recommendation believing that when carefully followed there will be a way forward to a better future.
1. Six months of SIWES should be strictly adhered to because there is really much to learn
2. ITF should pay students during training to alleviate the problems of transportation than waiting till the end of the program
3. ITF should pay students during training to alleviate the problems of transportation than waiting till the end of the programme. The present allowance should be reviewed upward to reflect present economic realities.
4. The supervisors from the universities and ITF should visit the students at the right time, as this really would be a motivation
My SIWES was a very successful one, I had an insight of the information security world. I have now known the power of networking and computer maintenance. With this, I will be able setup a simple network and maintain my computer and other devices.
SIWES as a course has truly exposed me to the challenges faced in a growing information world that is dependent on computers.