An Analysis of Three Concepts of Psychodynamic, Adlerian and Jungian Psychological Perspectives
Weston (1998), states that one of the postulates fundamental to contemporary psychodynamic theory is that a large amount of mental existence, involving thoughts, emotions, and motivation, are unconscious. As a result, people are capable of acting in fashions or acquiring symptoms that are incomprehensible to them (Weston, 1998; Erdelyi, 2001). Weston asserts that research not only corroborates the theory that emotional and motivational processes are unconscious and that they are in fact unconscious’ attempts to manage uncertain emotional events; but also gives credence to Freud’s theory of a dynamically unconscious process, which more explicitly, suggests that there is a purpose for keeping some issues unconscious. Similar to defence mechanism (Erdelyi, 2001), through the avoidance of a painful stimulus because of negative reinforcement, people may learn to evade concentrating on specific cognitive or affective processes since it is linked to disgrace, culpability, or unhappiness (Weston, 1998).
Luborsky, O ’Reilly-Landry & Arlow (2008), spoke of explicit memory, which suggests the deliberate recovery of information, while implicit memory suggests that memory does not occur by way of the mind, but is instead, is exhibited by way of ones’ behaviour. Implicit memory is also associated with transference patterns exhibited via the behaviour in new relationships. Associative memory makes connections to things through their resemblance. This process is similar to Freud’s dynamic inquiry, with regard to unconscious meanings, for instance, when a counsellor pursues a line of thinking by its illogical, emotional associations.
The technique of free association is a prime example of the use of the unconscious in psychodynamic counselling. Customarily when a client exhibits manners of avoidance a psychodynamic counsellor will probably investigate particular examples and track the path of associations, until patterns start to appear which might offer insight into the cognitive-affective associations fundamental to the avoidance. Since these connections are not obtainable through introspection, the sole manner to plot them would be to observe what ideas, emotions, recollections, images etc. surface, after the client calms their consciousness and essentially states what ever comes into their heads’ (Weston, 1998).
Early Recollections as Part of a Lifestyle Assessment
Examinations of family constellation, the responsibilities of life and early recollections are likely to generate life stories that when combined, bear patterns of how one lives and copes (Bitter & Nicoll, 2000). Bettner& Lew (1993) used these examinations in Connexions Focusing Technique in couple counselling, which allowed the counsellor to rapidly distinguish both partner’s life-styles and to explain this information to the their clients. Early recollections transpire in the time prior to uninterrupted memory and is possibly inexact or a total falsehood. It symbolizes a solitary occurrence instead of a cluster of occurrences (Mosak & Maniacci, 2008). Taking note of the client’s understanding of their position they hold within the family, assist the counsellor to grasping the client’s overall perception of their position in the world. Paying attention to the person’s encounters with life’s stress, aids the counsellor in uncovering the client’s strong points, perceived failing, and coping manners (Sweeney, Myers, & Stephan, 2006). Listening to early recollections may disclose the client’s beliefs about themselves, other people, existence, the universe, as well as their principles; they may also divulge the client’s attitude with regard to the counselling session, the counselling relationship and their obstructing thoughts, which undoubtedly will influence the subject matter and anxieties that are conveyed in the counselling session (Bitter & Nicoll, 2000).
In Life-Style assessments, the client’s family is examined, followed by the interpretation the patient’s early recollections. Recollections are dealt with as a projective modus operandi. In comprehending early recollections, we are able to comprehend the client’s life story, since people chose to recollect events that are agreeable with their life-styles (Mosak & Maniacci, 2008).
The summarization of early recollections for life style assessments demonstrates the origins of the client’s “basic mistakes”. Ones’ way of life may be regarded as an individuals’ fundamental myths, that they accept as true. People will conduct themselves as if the myths were factual since, for them, they are. Consequently, there are “truths” and “partial truths” in myths, and there are myths we confuse as truth. Lastly, for the assessment, the counsellor is curious about how the client perceives’ their own positive features (Mosak & Maniacci, 2008).
Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types Used in Counselling
Analytical psychology differentiates a number of psychological types. They address inherent distinctions in disposition; the reason why people sense and respond to the world in different ways. Therapy, undoubtedly, is affected by one’s “personal equation”, this can be categorized using Jungian typology, the benefits being able to think back to dynamics of type which can be ascertained in the connection with the client. Additionally, with regard to this relationship, the counsellor may reflect on what is often highlighted in analytical listening, such as, imagery, verbal communication, physical experience, etc. (Dehing, 1992).
Counsellors frequently give types assessments for those in couple or family counselling. By way of its’ reading, people may comprehend that some of their difficulties may have to do with their differences in type. Differences can be acknowledged and dealt with, with less difficulties when understand as conflicts in type, and the understanding of other peoples specific combination of attitude and function types (introversion and extraversion, thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition) which may result in enhanced communication with others (Douglas, 2008).
Downey (1924) points out that speed of movement and speed of decision are consequences of typology. Your personality can affect your decision making process. Decision making principles offer guidance for making effective decisions by utilizing shared set of assumptions that allow us to comprehend or predict behaviour (Downey, 1924). A modified form of cognitive styles can be assessed through the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The fundamental premise for the MBTI is that people have preferences for doing one thing over another. Additionally, what people do and how they choose to do it demonstrates the exercising of their true preference (Douglas, 2008; Bradway, 1964).
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